CHAPTER one INTRODUCTION Due to the fossil fuel crisis in past decade, mankind has to focus on developing the alternate energy sources such as biomass, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind energy, solar energy, and nuclear energy. The developing of alternative-fuel technologies are investigated to deliver the replacement of fossil fuel. The focused technologies are bio-ethanol, bio-diesel lipid derived bio-fuel, waste oil recycling, Pyrolysis, gasification, dimethyl ether, and biogas. On the other hand, appropriate waste management strategy is another important aspect of sustainable development since waste problem is concerned in every city. The waste to energy technology is investigated to process the potential materials in waste which are plastic, biomass and rubber tire to be oil . Pyrolysis process becomes an option of waste-to-energy technology to deliver bio-fuel to replace fossil fuel. Waste plastic and waste tire are investigated in this research as they are the available technology. The advantage of the Pyrolysis process is its ability to handle un-sort and dirty plastic. The pre-treatment of the material is easy. Tire is needed to be shredded while plastic is needed to be sorted and dried. Pyrolysis is also no toxic or environmental harmful emission unlike incineration Economic growth and changing consumption and production patterns are resulting into rapid increase in generation of waste plastics in the world. For more than 50 years the global production of plastic has continued to rise. Some two hundred and ninety-nine million tons of plastics were produced in 2013, representing a four percent increase over 2012. Recovery and recycling, however, remain insufficient, and millions of tons of plastics end up in landfills and oceans each year Approximately 10–20 million tons of plastic end up in the oceans each year. A recent study conservatively estimated that 5.25 trillion plastic particles weighing a total of 268,940 tons are currently floating in the world‟s oceans. And since plastic being a non-biodegradable material it remains into the soil, thereby polluting the environment. On the other hand, appropriate waste management strategy is another important aspect of sustainable development since waste problem is concerned in every city. As we know that both Plastics and Petroleum derived fuels are Hydrocarbons that contain the elements of Carbon & Hydrogen. Pyrolysis process becomes an option of waste-to-energy technology to deliver bio-fuel to replace fossil fuel. The advantage of the Pyrolysis process is its ability to handle unsort and dirty plastic. The pre-treatment of the material is easy. Plastic is needed to be sorted and dried. Pyrolysis is also no toxic or non environmental harmful emission unlike incineration. Every year humans produce nearly two hundred and eighty million tons of plastic, and much of that plastic ends up in theenvironment, harming marine life and other ecosystems. The chemical bonds that makes plastic sodurable makes it equally resistant to natural processesof degradation. Since plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, it is very difficult to eliminate the waste plasticsfrom nature. Since 1950s one billion tons of plastic have been discarded and may persist for hundreds or even thousands of years. Expenditure incurred on disposal of plastic waste throughout the world is around US$ two billion every year. Even for a small country like Honk Kong spends about US$ fourteen million a year on the exercise . The majority of the plastic waste ends up in landfills, and becomes a carbon sink where it may take up to 1000 years to decompose and potentially leak pollutants into the soil and water. Also the plastic wastes are dumped in the oceans threatening the health and safety of marine life. The uncontrolled incineration of plastic produces polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, a carcinogen. So,converting the waste plastic into crude oil will have two benefits. First of all, the hazards caused due to plastic waste can be reduced and secondly, we will be able to obtain some amount of oil from it, which can be further purified to be used as a fuel in different areas such as domestic fuel, fuel for automobiles and industries etc. Thereby, our dependency on fossil fuels will reduce to acertain extent. CHAPTER two LITERATURE REVIEW 1)M.fAli reported that the high yields of liquid fuels in the boiling range 100°C–480° C and gases were obtained along with a small amount of heavy oils and insoluble material such as gums and coke. The results obtained on the co-processing of polypropylene with coal and petroleum residues are very encouraging as this method appears to be quite feasible to convert plastic materials into liquefied coal products and to upgrade the petroleum residues and waste plastics. 2)Miskolczi Investigated the Pyrolysis of real waste plastics (high-density polyethylene and polypropylene) in a pilot scale horizontal tube reactor at five hundred and twenty °C temperature in the presence and absence of ZSM-5 catalyst. It was found that the yields of gases, gasoline and light oil could be increased in the presence of catalyst. They also concluded that the plastic wastes could be converted into gasoline and light oil with yields of 20–48% and 17–36 % respectively depending on the used parameters. 3)F murfyk from the recent literature, it is evident that the process of converting waste plastic to reusable oil is a current research topic, preparation of blends of diesel with varying proportions of waste plastic oil produced from the thermal Pyrolysis and the analysis of viscosity and density of these blends is presented. The feasibility of the waste plastic oils derived from PVC plastics as an alternate fuel for transportation is also checked by conducting performance test on a single cylinder Kirlosker diesel engine equipped with electrical loading at 50% of the engine maximum load i.e., at 3.7 kW. CHAPTER three METHODLOGY 1.Identification of waste plastics. (PE/PP/PS/LDPE/HDPE) 2.Subjecting the waste plastic for Pyrolysis process. 3.Condensation of the gas to obtain raw fuel. 4.Conversion of raw fuel into its pure form (diesel etc) by the process of distillation. CHAPTER four SELECTION OF MATERIALS 4.1 CLOSED CHAMBER Fig4.1 closed chamber Closed chamber is made up of mild steel. It can withstand heating temperature upto one thousand, three hundred and twenty ⃰⃰C. lavish plastics like polyethylene, polyethylene terepthalate, pvc, polystyrene, are inserted into the closed chamber and allow to heat at a required temperature. It consists of pressure gauge which is used to measure the pressure of heating. The melting point of mild steel, or low carbon steel, is usually 2,600 degrees Fahrenheit, or 1,427 degrees Celsius. Mild steel is one of the most commonly used types of industrial steel, and it consists of an alloy ofsteel and carbon MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Yield strength 370mpa Tensile strength 370mpa Elongation at break 15.0 % Modulus of elasticity 205gpa Reduction of area 40.0% 4.2 CONDENSER Fig4.2 condenser Condenser is a device or unit used to a substance from its gaseous to its liquid state, by cooling it. In so doing, the latent heat is given up by the substance, and will transfer to the condenser coolant. condensegaseousliquidlatent heat Condensers can be made according to numerous designs, and come in many sizes ranging from rather small (hand-held) to very large (industrial-scale units used in plant processes). For example, a refrigerator uses a condenser to get rid of heat extracted from the interior of the unit to the outside air. Condensers are used in air conditioning , industrial chemical processes such as distillation , steam power plants and other heat-exchange systems. Use of cooling water or surrounding air as the coolant is common in many condensers 4.3 PIPES Fig4.3 coupling Cast iron pipe pipe which has had historic use as a pressure pipe for transmission of water, gas and sewage.. It comprises predominantly a gray cast iron tube and was frequently used uncoated, although later coatings and linings reduced corrosion and improve hydraulics. Cast iron pipe was superseded by ductile iron pipe, which is a direct development, with most existing manufacturing plants transitioning to the new material during the 1970s and 1980s . Little cast iron pipe is currently manufactured . is apipewhich has had historic use as a pressure pipe for transmission of water, gas and sewage.. It comprises predominantly agray cast irontube and was frequently used uncoated, although later coatings and linings reduced corrosion and improve hydraulics. Cast iron pipe was superseded byductile iron pipe, which is a direct development, with most existing manufacturing plants transitioning to the new material during the 1970s and 1980s. Little cast iron pipe is currently manufactured. Cast iron pipe is used to carry the hot gases of burnt plastics and sent to the condenser coil. The coil cool the hot gases and sent to further process. Cast iron proved to be a beneficial material for the manufacture of water pipes and was used as a replacement for the original elm pipelines laid in the ground earlier. These water pipelines were composed of individually cast pipe sections, often termed sticks, jointed together by a bell and spigot joint. [1 ] Here one end of the pipe stick is flared, termed the bell or socket, to enable the opposite end of the next stick, the spigot end, to be inserted to create a joint. The gaps in these joints were sealed with to prevents the water leaking out. A molten-lead joint was then run around the socket to ensure that the oakum seal remained in place. oakum Fig4.4 pipe lines 4.4 CONDENSER FAN Fig4.5 condenser fan · Air cooled – If the condenser is located on the outside of the unit, the air cooled condenser can provide the easiest arrangement. These types of condensers eject heat to the outdoors and are simple to install. · Most common uses for this condenser are domestic refrigerators, upright freezers and in residential packaged air conditioning units. A great feature of the air cooled condenser is they are very easy to clean. Since dirt can cause serious issues with the condensers performance, it is highly recommended that these be kept clear of dirt · Larger condensers are also used in industrial-scale distillation processes to cool distilled vapor into liquid distillate. Commonly, the coolant flows through the tube side and distilled vapor through the shell side with distillate collecting at or flowing out the bottom. · In this type of condenser, vapors are poured into the liquid directly. The vapors lose their latent heat of vaporization; hence, vapors transfer their heat into liquid and the liquid becomes hot. In this type of condensation, the vapor and liquid are of same type of substance. In another type of direct contact condenser, cold water is sprayed into the vapor to be condensed. 4.5 FAN MOTOR fig4.6 fan motor These commercial-duty motors feature high starting torque, cool running temperature, and a reversing plug. All models are suitable for outdoor air conditioner condensers and refrigeration condensers. Insulated and engineered for trouble-free operation, these high-ambient condenser fan motors help to handle full-rated loads at high temperatures. Each motor features a corrosion-resistant coating on its rotor core to help extend long motor life. The motors also feature easy-to-remove drain plugs in each end shield. Use with outdoor air conditioning and refrigeration condensing units and heat pumps. Motor type AC- Motor Speed 1075 rpm Voltage 208-230 v CHAPTER five 5.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF PLASTICS AND OIL PRODUCTS Before looking at the process options for the conversion of plastic into oil products, it is worth considering the characteristics of these two materials, to identify where similarities exist, and the basic methods of conversion. The principal similarities are that they are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen, and that they are made of molecules that are formed in „chains‟ of carbon atoms. Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, which are separated and purified by distillation and other processes at an oil refinery. The majority of the crude oil is used for the production of fuels for transportation, heating and power generation. These oil products are not single components, but are a blend of components used to meet the relevant fuel specifications in the most economic manner, given the composition of the crude oil and the configuration of the oil refinery. These components have a wide range of chain lengths: gasoline has compounds with a chain length of between three and ten carbon atoms, and diesel has compounds with a chain length of between five and 18 carbon atoms, but both contain only hydrogen and carbon. Plastic is a generic term for a wide range of polymers produced using highly refined fractions of crude oil, or chemicals derived from crude oil, known as monomers. Polymers are formed by the reaction of these monomers, which results in chain lengths of tens or hundreds of thousands of carbon atoms. Some polymers also contain oxygen (e.g. polyethylene terephthalate (PET)), whereas others contain chlorine (polyvinyl chloride (PVC)). It is worth noting that only a small proportion (< five %) of the crude oil processed in the world is used to produce the monomers (e.g.ethane,propene) used in the manufacture of polymers (e.g. polyethene, polypropylene). The figure demonstrates where the atomic composition in most plastics is similar to those in gasoline and diesel derived from crude oil . CHAPTER six COLLECTION & IDENTIFICATION OF misuse PLASTIC Fig6.1 plasitic waste The collection of waste plastic is quite an easy task as compared to other wastes , the plastic wastes are abundant and can be obtained in large quantities from the households, roadsides, hospitals, hotels etc. Fig6.2 grinded plastic Ø This plastics are usually termed as POLYETHYLENE (PE) POLYPROPYLENE (PP) prehistoric DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE) LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LDPE) Usually they are manufactured in the form of plastic bags, saline bottles, plastic tools, chairs and other components which we usually come across in our day to day life. These plastics could be collected or usually purchased at Rs.10 to 15/kg after being shredded and washed Properl. Fig6.3 Pyrolysis process The Pyrolysis is a simple process in which the organic matter is subjected to higher temperature about 300ºC to 500ºC in order to promote thermal cracking of the organic matter so as to obtain the end products in the form of – liquid, char and gas in absence of oxygen CHAPTER seven PLASTIC OIL 7.1 LEVEL OF PLASTIC OIL PROCESS IN THAT PROCESS Fig7.1 level of plastic oil Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) LLDPE is defined by a density range of 0.915–0.925 g/cm3. LLDPE is a substantially linear polymer with significant numbers of short branches, commonly made by copolymerization of ethylene with short-chain alpha-olefins (for example, 1-butene, 1-hexene, and 1-octene). 7.2 PLASTIC OIL fig7.2 plastic oil Pyrolysis Pyrolysis products like Pyrolysis oil , Pyrolysis gas, carbon black is called Pyrolysis plant. Pyrolysis plant offers new business opportunities like: Recycling. Waste to energy . of waste plastic and tires. Industry that converts waste plastic and tire intoPyrolysisproducts likePyrolysisoil,Pyrolysisgas, carbon black is calledPyrolysis plant. Pyrolysis plantoffers new business opportunities like: Recycling. Waste to energy . Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen (or any halogen). It involves the simultaneous change of chemical composition and physical phase, and is irreversible. The word is coined from the Greek-derived elements pyro fire and lysis separating. CHAPTER eight WHY WE ADOPT Pyrolysis PROCESS Comparison of Green House Gas (GHG) Emissions by Pyrolysis process with other processes: Emissions associated with manufacture of other raw materials (excluding the waste plastic stream) are 13.0kgCO2 . For the case of Pyrolysis these are owing to hydrogen that is consumed within the process. Site emissions from incineration of Pyrolysis gases, distillation residues and 3% of the diesel product generated are 56kgCO2 Emissions associated with all elements of transport (products and waste) are 197kgCO2 Based on these figures the emissions associated with Pyrolysis are 266kgCO2 Displacement savings associated with replacing fossilised diesel production are 426kgCO2. Overall the net emissions for Pyrolysis are –160kgCO2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF DIESEL GRADE OF WASTE PLASTIC S.NO CHARACTERISTICES DIESEL GRADE FULE Flash point in °C eighty-seven Fire point ° C ninety-two Viscosity@40 °C 3.8 Density kg/m3 eight hundred Calorific value KJ/Kg 46988 CALORIFIC VALUES OF PLASTICS Fuel Calorific value (MJ/kg) Methane fifty-three Gasoline forty-four Fuel oil forty-three Coal thirty-three Polyethylene forty-three Mixed plastics 30-40 CHAPTER nine DESIGNING OPERATION 9.1 SOLID WORKS DESIGN OF COVER PLATE Fig9.1 cover plate 9.2 SOLID WORKS DESIGN OF CYLINDER Fig9.2 cylinder 9.3 SOLID WORKS DESIGN OF CONDENCER Fig9.3 condenser 9.4 SOLID WORKS DESIGN OF ASSEMBLY PART Fig9.4 assembly part 9.5 HEAT ANALYSIS FOR COVER PLATE Fig9.5 heat analysis for cover plate Cover plate is the top cap of the chamber. It has a hole at the top of the cap. The hole which is present at the top is used to pass the hot gases coming out from the chamber. Various colour indicates that heat analysis for the cover plate. 9.6 HEAT ANALYSIS FOR CYLINDER Fig9.6 heat analysis for cylinder This is a closed chamber. In this chamber various colour denotes that heat analysis of the chamber. Red colour shows that heat analysis process is high when compare to all other colours and blue colour shows that chamber having very low heat analysis. In between colour shows that chamber having moderate heat analysis. By using solid works software chamber heat analysis process is shown. CHAPTER 10 APPLICATION OF work & FUTURE WORK 1)The obtained fuel could be utilized in diesel generators, vehicles such as tractors and also passenger vehicles such as cars. 2)The fuel has to be refined at the industrial establishments, based on the results of which small scale industry can be established. 3)As there is a high demand of crude oil and due to its sky reaching prices , we could take up this project to setup large or small scale industries and produce the fuel locally at much cheaper rates directly benefiting the National economy and also a step towards SWAACH BHARAT by recycling the waste plastic. 4.)The application of this project could help in reducing the dependency on the gulf countries and promote a step towards innovation. V. CHAPTER 11 RESULTS 1)Through our experimentation we concluded that about six hundred to 750ml of diesel fuel could be obtained by burning 1Kg of plastic. Burning 1Kg of plastic in an open environment produces 3Kg of CO2, whereas by converting it into fuel and burning it reduces 80% of CO2 emissions , which results in to be quite environmentally friendly. 2)Lesser emission of unburnt HYDROCARBONS in waste plastic Pyrolysis oil compared to that of diesel. 3)The diesel or oil thus obtained has a higher efficiency with around 30 to 40% low production cost compared to that available in the market. CHAPTER 12 CONCLUSION · From this project we can reduce the plastics which are present in our environment. · We can also use the oil for our automobile purpose · We can also control the pollution · We can use this as alternate fuel also CHAPTER thirteen REFERENCES 1)Abatneh Y. & Sahu O. (2013) The Conversion Of Different Waste Plastics Into Fuel Oil International Journal of Scientific & Technology 2( 5): 29-31 2)Daniel D. Chiras (2004) : Creating a Sustainable Future. Jones & Bartlett Learning. Environmental Science 7th edition, 517-518. 3)Garib Alla M M, Ahmed A I & Abdalla B K (2014) Conversion of plastic waste to liquid fuel International Journal of Technical Research and Applications 2(3):29-314)Hester, R. E.; Harrison, R. M. (2011). sailing Pollution and Human Health. Royal Society of Chemistry. 84-85. 5)Ingle R, Masal R & Gargade (2014) Obtaining Fuels from Plastic Waste International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication two ( 4) : two hundred and eighteen –220 6)Luo , Suto T, Yasu S & Kato K (2007) Catalytic degradation of high density polyethylene and polypropylene into liquid fuel in a powder-particle fluidized bed. Polym Degrad Stabil, 70: 97-10 7)Nagori K. & Dohare ( 2014) Conversion of selected waste cast in to Synthetic Fuel (Synthetic Diesel ) International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology 3(9):471-475 8)Panda A. K. , . Singh R. K, and Mishra D. K.,( 2010.) Thermolysis of waste plastics to liquid fuel. A suitable method for plastic waste management and manufacture of value added products—a world prospective, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(1): 233–248, 9)Singh R. P, Tyagi V V ,Allen T. Ibrahim M H & Kothari R. (2011) An overview for exploring the possibilities of energy generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) in Indian scenario Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15( 9): 4797–4808.
This free text article has been written automatically with the Text Generator Software https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/ - Try it for yourself and tell your friends!