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__Headline:__## Unifying quantum mechanics with Einstein’s general relativity

__Reading time:__7 minutes, 14 seconds

__Language:__en

__Main keyword:__Quantum

__Sub keyword:__Dynamics Relativity

__Topics of your individual article:__Classical ✓ Quantum ✓ Physics

__Summary:__- Generalising classical physics At around the beginning of the 20th century, many physicists began work on revolutionary theories to explain why matter appears to behave differently on extremely small scales.
- rising effect from generalisation Within Dr Sanchez’s universal theory, wave-particle duality of known quantum physics emerges as a specific case for when the right circumstances are applied, instead of being a general rule.
- Ultimately, a unified suggestion of the quantum nature of astronomical-scale phenomena could transform our understanding of how the universe works, and would set the stage for an thrilling recent era of theoretical physics and cosmology.

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__Article Text:__The problem of whether light is a wave or a particle has mystified physicists since the 17th century. The conundrum first appeared when Isaac Newton developed his ‘corpuscle’ theory, which described particles of light which must only travel in straight lines; as remembered in the observation in a mirror. At the same time, however, other physicists including Christiaan Huygens and Thomas Young proposed that light must propagate as a wave, as it displays properties like diffraction and interference. In fact, neither of these hypothesis are necessarily ‘wrong’, since both of them are constant with experimental observations when the right context is applied. On quantum scales, fire travels in packets which we now ask photons, but also reliably follows Maxwell’s equations, which describe the dynamics of classical electromagnetic waves. To tell how both concept can be proper at the same time, physicists needed a way to unify both classical electrodynamics and quantum physics into a deeper, more all-encompassing theory. Known among physicists as ‘quantum electrodynamics’, the theory was by no means simple to develop, but nonetheless, it has been done. Generalising classical physics At around the beginning of the 20th century, many physicists began work on revolutionary theories to explain why matter appears to behave differently on extremely small scales. In the resultant decades, the arising course of quantum mechanics resolved many questions which classical physics didn’t have the means to answer. Ultimately, the success of the theory stemmed from the fact that quantum theory is a ‘generalised’ theory, of which classical physics is just one specialised branch. This means that while physics occurs to be non-classical on quantum scales, classical manners emerge on larger scales, where quantum processes become far less relevant overall. Ultimately, therefore, quantum mechanics unifies explanations for mental behaviours which are observed on a variety of scales. Yet despite the successes of quantum theory, physicists have realised for some time that even quantum mechanics is not general enough to explain all of the physics we have observed in the universe. The incompleteness of gravity Again, first designated by Newton, the effects of gravity can be accurately described in various situations using classical physics alone. However, these concept are helpless to fully clarify all phenomena ever observed by astronomers. Albert Einstein famously settled this edition through his theory of general relativity. His equations generalised gravity to a senior all-encompassing theory; this time, to a geometric model which unites space and time, named spacetime. Yet although Einstein’s hypothesis has been watertight ample to remain up to even the latest astronomical observations, it appears to be completely incompatible with quantum mechanics. For physicists, this desire for an even inner generalisation, which has been pre-emptively supposed the name ‘quantum gravity’. In her research, Dr Sanchez goal to realise such a theory, in which both quantum mechanics and general relativity are certain branches which are canned on their appropriate scales. To do this, she has included internal hypothesis which have emerged since Einstein first drew out his famous equations. The key point in her approach is that instead of starting from gravity and quantizing it, she starts from quantum theory and extends it to the high energy scales where gravity and quantum effects are of the same importance. Dr Sanchez uses ‘semi-classical’ gravity as a standard theory, which emerges from her own theories in particular situations. auditorium on an intermediate theory Later on in the 20th century, a wide variety of artful discoveries about the nature of our universe broke to emerge. These included Stephen Hawking’s celebrated explanations for how black holes decay through radiation, as well as Cosmic Microwave Background radiation – a faint source of light found across the entire sky, which indicates the density structure of the entire universe. These hypothesis are united in the approximation that matter displays quantum behaviour, but moves around corresponding to a classical description of spacetime. understood as ‘semi-classical’ gravity, this example acts as a helpful bridge between the separated theories of quantum mechanics and general relativity, and a unified theory of quantum gravity. Because of this, Dr Sanchez uses it as a standard theory, which emerges from her own theories in particular situations. widening classical-quantum duality While former theories which incorporate semi-classical gravity have described vast astronomical structures, Dr Sanchez brings it down to quantum scales in her research. To relate how severity could work in this regime, she starts from the classical-quantum duality of quantum theory and extends it across and beyond the Planck scale. This is where a combination of three basic mental constants occurs: Planck’s constant, originating from quantum mechanics; Newton’s gravitational continuous from classical gravitation; and the speed of light, which Einstein proved to be constant through general relativity. Dr Sanchez has now moved a hypothesis which incorporates these three constants into one unified structure. In performing this, the chattel of ‘wave-particle-gravity’ duality, or ‘classical-quantum gravity’ duality emerges. If Dr Sanchez’s calculations are correct, it could provide a solution to the puzzle which has eluded physicists for centuries. rising effect from generalisation Within Dr Sanchez’s universal theory, wave-particle duality of known quantum physics emerges as a specific case for when the right circumstances are applied, instead of being a general rule. This means that instead of being at odds with each other, both theories that light is wave-like and particle-like are simply special branches of the same, more deeply rooted theory. This also lets for the escape of properties including the classical-quantum duality of spacetime, whose quantum nature has remained highly evasive so far. In addition, Dr Sanchez charge that an entirely latest quantum domain rises which is not present in the classical description of spacetime – giving physicists a more complete description of its properties. Within this domain, single story of space-time emerge at the quantum Planck scale. On classical macroscopic scales, the collective behaviours of these levels appear indistinguishable from the space-time continuum which physicists are more familiar with. Re-drawing the light cone One particularly essential outcome of Dr Sanchez’s theory has been the unanticipated emergence of a ‘quantum light cone’, which doesn’t appear within a classical description of the universe. In general relativity, a fire cone tells the path taken by light emerging from a individual point in time and space; along with all paths taken by the light reaching the point as the flash occurs. The cone shape rises since all light must reach the equal distance from the point at a given time no matter its direction. The boundary of the cone arises because the speed of light is the highest possible velocity throughout the entire universe. One particularly important result of Dr Sanchez’s theory has been the unexpected emergence of a ‘quantum light cone’. Within Dr Sanchez’s theory, the latest quantum fire cone involves a small space between the tips of the opposite-facing cones, which are, in fact, hyperbola-shaped instead of pointed. Quantum effects then appear within this space, in the region of time and space immediately surrounding the flash. On huge scales, where quantum effectiveness are no longer relevant, the classical light cone re-emerges; ultimately allowing both previous theories to work in harmony with each other. Classical-quantum duality in dark holes Finally, Dr Sanchez has employed her theory of classical-quantum duality to dark holes, whose inner workings are masked by an ‘event horizon ’ from which fire cannot escape. So far, this has meant that the physical nature of black hole interiors has completely eluded astronomers. corresponding to Dr Sanchez, the outer province of shadowy holes are either classical or semi-classical, while the behaviours of their interiors are totally governed by quantum mechanics. The disaster horizon recedes at the quantum level, a ‘quantum border’ arises at which the interiors and exteriors of shadowy holes become the equal on quantum scales. Moreover, the classical space-time central singularity – the point at the centre of a dark hole at which curvature had been theorized to become infinite, is avoided in this case. According to Dr Sanchez, the singularity must disappear at the quantum level, to remain consistent with the smearing of singularities on quantum scales. A metamorphosis in understanding Over the old decades, possible explanation to quantum gravity and several types of mathematical dualities have been hotly debated, and it has remained uncertain whether or not our fundamental understanding of physics needs to be completely rethought. But Dr Sanchez comprehended that is the internal and universal wave-particle duality of quantum physics which is at the root of the solution. Ultimately, a unified suggestion of the quantum nature of astronomical-scale phenomena could transform our understanding of how the universe works, and would set the stage for an thrilling recent era of theoretical physics and cosmology.

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__Source of Article:__https://researchoutreach.org/articles/unifying-quantum-mechanics-einstein-general-relativity/

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