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Hey, and while Redefining Your Personal Values: The Rath proof figure thirteen point one Negotiation-of-Selves Conflicts OUTCOMES OF FAILING TO SELF-DISCLOSE interdependence A relationship in which members of different groups not only must cooperate but also must depend on each other to reach common goals. C. S. Carver, C. Pozo, S. D. Harris, V. Noriega, M. F. Scheier, D. S. Robinson, A. S. Ketcham, F. L. Moffat Jr., and K. C. Clark, “ How Coping Mediates the Effect of Optimism on Distress: A ponder of Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology sixty-five , pp. DEFENSIVE BEHAVIORS Increase Your Creativity figure 13.3 CONFLICT solution METHODS four Low interest in physical intimacy stalled by a bunch of people who don’t understand © Photodisc/Getty Images ing, “What if someone owned a company case study fifteen point two International Business Calling “ The Philosophy Organized of Manufacturers” pre-labor union WHEN YOUR custom ARE OTHER BUSINESSES Ryan Mc Vay/Getty Images/MGH-DIL EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Simon Bottomley/Getty Images working it out seventeen point two THE PARABLE OF THE SADHU psychological contract An agreement that is not written or spoken but is understood between people.

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    Human Relations and Your Future Success Human Relations and Your Future Success Human Relations and Your Future Success Human Relations and Your Future Success Human Relations and Your Future Success Human Relations and Your Future Success Human Relations and Your Future Success Human Relations and Your Future Success nineteen Human Relations and Your Future Success Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Building Your Human Relations Skills Human Relations Theory Creativity and Human Relations Creativity and Human Relations Creativity and Human Relations Creativity and Human Relations Conflict Management Human And Neo Human Relations Human Relations Movement Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Human Relations in Groups Communication and Human Relations Communication and Human Relations Communication and Human Relations Communication and Human Relations Communication and Human Relations Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations and You Human Relations In Nursing Discuss the challenges of human relations as these factors affect success in business. border of WWII Birth of human relations THE IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RELATIONS SKILLS Define human relations. Human race in a World of Diversity Human Relations in a World of Diversity Human Relations in a World of Diversity Human Relations in a World of Diversity Human Relations in a World of Diversity Human Relations in a World of Diversity Human Relations in a World of Diversity Human Relations in a World of Diversity Human Relations in a World of Diversity Human Relations in a World of Diversity Required courses in human relations Growth in classroom study of human relations win-lose strategy A strategy that allows one side of a conflict to win at the expense of the other. win-lose strategy A strategy that allows one side of a conflict to win at the expense of another. building your human relations skills eleven Human family Part one human relations in groups seven Strategy seventeen point two lose-lose strategy A strategy in which everyone gives up something and the focus is on compromise. explicate the relationship among self-motivation, self-direction, and success. Strategy eleven point two Self-Concept and Self-Esteem in Human Relations Self-Concept and Self-Esteem In Human Relations Self-Concept and Self-Esteem In Human Relations Self-Concept and Self-Esteem In Human Relations Loss of relationships Slowdown of personal growth HUMAN RELATIONS AND YOUR FUTURE SUCCESS Strategy nine point two part two Human Relations in Groups Strategy three point two Strategy nine point three Strategy seven point two human relations and you one Explain how awareness-related barriers impact human relations. articulation and Human Relations one hundred and sixty-two Strategy five point two Explain the importance of human relations in business. Discuss a short history of the study of human relations. Strategy four point two part one Human Relations and You part one Human Relations and You Strategy three point three Strategy six point two Strategy two point two Strategy 8.2 Strategy 16.2 Reducing Sexual Harassment Outstanding personal achievement Strategy one point two COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS Identify what is not human relations. Strategy thirteen point two Make Collaboration Work Strategy thirteen point three interrupt Conflicts Before They Start human relations The skill or ability to work effectively through and with other people. Explain how prejudiced attitudes pose a challenge to human relations. boss morals and Social Responsibility Maintaining a Productive Workplace Human Relations and Your Future Success CREATIVITY AND HUMAN RELATIONS HUMAN RELATIONS IN A WORLD OF DIVERSITY Self-Concept and Self-Esteem in Human Relations twenty-eight Strategy nineteen point two Make an Inventory of Your Skills Strategy nineteen point three go Toward a Happier Life part three Building Your Human Relations Skills two hundred and seventy-nine eleven Individual and Organizational Change twelve Creativity and Human Relations 13 Conflict Management Human Relations in History: Life and death? ow important is it to understand others and get THE CUSTOMER’S NEEDS— BASIC HUMAN NEEDS MAJOR GOALS AND EMPHASIS AREAS OF HUMAN RELATIONS Negotiate Win-Win Solutions In the Workplace : The Meaning of Success SITUATION With win-win situations, companies and individuals grow. Conflicts are resolved with higher morale than before, and communication stays open. How can people bring more win-win situations to their work environments? Relationship issues Becoming Culturally Aware of Ethical Conduct Emotional The right way Habit Ethnocentrism Competition Reece and Brandt, Effective Human Relations in Organizations, pp. 313–314. Andrew E. Schwartz, “ How to Handle Conflict Between Employees,” Supervisory Management thirty-seven , p. nine strategy improved her feelings of self-worth. Interpersonal Values Conflicts CONFLICTING VALUES HAPPEN EVERYWHERE Which of these areas do you personally consider most important to effective human relations? WHAT IS HUMAN RELATIONS ? Describe how human relations are affected when they are part of a diverse society. part four Thriving in a Changing World sixteen Human Relations in a World of Diversity AREAS OF MAJOR EMPHASIS In the broadest sense, the study of human relations has two goals : personal development and growth, and achievement of an organization’s objectives. All of the following areas of emphasis take both of those goals into consideration. You will notice that each of the areas is developed in the following chapters of this book. Most of them overlap, and some are dependent upon others. Those relationships will become clearer as you read further. Relation ships Frank K. Sonnenberg, “ Barriers to Communication,” Journal of Business Strategy eleven , pp. 56–58. A HUMAN folk TIMELINE Discuss the relationship between self-esteem and motivation. Win-Lose Style What are the major changes you see in human relations over the years? PERSONALIZING YOUR apply Qualities of an Effective Conflict Resolution Method Russ Von Hoelscher, How to Achieve Total Success , p. forty-two fourteen Edward Hoffman, The Right to Be Human : A Biography of Abraham Maslow , p. 238. 15 Interpersonal Intelligence TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE THE FIVE TYPES OF CORPORATE CULTURE Strategy twelve point two Roger von Oech ’s “Ten Mental Locks” Strategy 12.3 utilize SCAMPER to Solve Problems Robert M. Fulmer, Practical Human Relations , pp. 292–293. PERSONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES Strategy fourteen point two Change Your Behaviors to Reduce Stress Strategy fourteen point three Take Care of Yourself Myers and Myers, Dynamics of Human Communication, p. 127. competitor Someone who is most likely to try a win-lose approach to conflict resolution, especially if he or she is personally involved in the conflict. empowerment A TQM strategy that involves forming people into groups to solve problems and complete tasks ; a process through which employees feel they are in control of their own contributions to the firm. Based on Edward T. Hall, “Proxemics A Study of Man’s Spatial Relationships, ” from Man ’s icon in Medicine and Anthropology . These defining factors are based on E. Thomas Moran and J. Fredericks Volkwein, “The Cultural Approach to the Formation of Organizational Climate,” Human Relations, January 1992, p. 20. Related Documents of business contacts and potential rivals. Returning to Personal and Organizational Values Motivation: Increasing Productivity SCAMPER A strategy, created by Bob Eberle, to release your creative mind. A BRIEF HISTORY OF HUMAN RELATIONS One cannot fully appreciate the present state of human relations without at least a partial understanding of the past. The history of human relations is essential to a thorough understanding of its place in today ’s world. Barry L. Reece and Rhonda Brandt, Effective Human Relations in Organizations , pp. 313–314. eight case study seventeen point one biography Over Profit ETHICAL OR PERSONAL CONFLICT? Achieving Emotional Control Achieving Emotional Control Achieving Emotional Control Achieving Emotional Control Achieving Emotional Control Thriving in a Changing World Gender Prejudice in the Business World Man Discuss the relationship between perception and creativity. contradict mercy Conflict Management Conflict Management Conflict Management Practice High-Context Communication Conflict management Pay Status Security Working conditions Fringe benefits Policies and administrative practices Interpersonal relations Discuss the relationship between self-esteem and work performance. Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationships. Aggressive but cooperative. Avoider The ability to work well with others is a key component to personal and professional success. Do you work well with others? CORPORATE CULTURE Moran and Volkwein “ The Cultural Approach, ” 22–47. See also R. M. Guion, “ A Note on Organizational Climate,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance nine , pp. 120–125. twelve Steps toward Combating Low Self-Esteem FAILURE TO COMMUNICATE Personal and Work Outcome Denis Waitley, Psychology of Success . See also Denis Waitley, Seeds of Greatness: The Ten Best-Kept Secrets of Total Success ; Denis Waitley and Reni L. Witt, The Joy of Working ; Denis Waitley, Empires of the Mind ; and current articles posted on Waitley’s Web site at www . deniswaitley.com. part two Human kith in Groups Chapter Seven one hundred and sixty-two Communication and Human Relations Communication and Miscommunication Listening—and How It Can Fail The Timing of Messages Communicating without Words Changing Pessimism to Optimism thirteen I try to win the other person over to my side. fourteen I work to come out victorious, no matter what. fifteen I never back away from a good argument. sixteen I would rather win than end up compromising. In the Workplace : Good Service: The Other Half of Success SITUATION Strategy 15.2 Support the Customer’s Self-Esteem Strategy 15.3 control the Difficult Customer Professionally The way in which a person views BEHAVIOR-BASED THEORIES OF MOTIVATION expectancy theory Developed by Victor Vroom to explain human behavior in terms of people ’s goals, choices, and the expectation that goals will be reached. expectancy In expectancy theory, the likelihood that if a person tried, the result would be better performance. instrumentality The likelihood that something good will come from an increase in effort. with his remarkable success in the silk industry, start- raise Your Communication Skills figure sixteen point four HOW TO TELL A BUSINESSMAN FROM A BUSINESSWOMAN figure 11.2 SEVEN STAGES OF PERSONAL CHANGE G. E. Myers and M. T. Myers, The Dynamics of Human Communication , pp. 125–127 . PREJUDICE facing HOMOSEXUALS Compare and contrast successful and unsuccessful listening skills. Milton Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values , pp. 3–12. Discuss the impact of making assumptions regarding other people. Elton Mayo, The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization . Building Positive Attitudes Values conflict ten Achieving Emotional Control In the Workplace : Bringing Home the Conflict SITUATION Passive, Unresponsive People Goleman, Working with Emotional Intelligence, pp. 26–28 depot Conflicts Before They Start figure 16.5 MYTHS ABOUT HIRING PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Personal and Organizational Values Personal and Organizational Values Personal and Organizational Values Personal and Organizational Values Negotiation-ofselves conflict See www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/erg. Accessed May one , 2008. 9 David C. McClelland, Human Motivation . ten key terms culture stories two hundred and thirty-one empowerment two hundred and twenty-two ISO nine thousand two hundred and twenty-four TREATING psychological abscess DISORDERS Social and human services assistants M. F. Scheier, J. K. Weintraub, and C. S. Carver, “Coping with Stress: Divergent Strategies of Optimists and Pessimists,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 , pp. 1258–1264 . FUNCTIONS OF NONVERBAL MESSAGES NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Stephen R. Covey, The Seven Habits of Highly Successful People , pp. 17–23. See also Stephen Covey, The eight th Habit . side’s unwillingness to work toward a win-win solution, you may be forced to use win-lose or lose-lose tactics. personal control eighty-five positive attitude eighty-three penury Total warfare SELF-CONCEPT AND SELF-ESTEEM IN HUMAN RELATIONS In the Workplace: First-day Jitters SITUATION Managerial-Entrepreneurial Culture In their best-selling book In Search of Excellence, Thomas Peters and Robert Waterman write about this type of culture. The member of this culture is an adventurer. Customer satisfaction is an extremely important shared value, as is productivity. Power is important. In this culture, power is associated with success with clients and customers, and with providing service, quality, and dependability. Formal divisions of labor “ Organizational Culture,” Answers.com, www.answers.com/ Organizational⫹Culture?cat⫽technology . See also G. Johnson “ Rethinking Incrementalism,” Strategic Management pamphlet nine , pp. 75–91. Describe the connections between prejudice, discrimination, and self-esteem. HONORING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT attitude An evaluation of people, ideas, issues, situations, or objects . CONFLICT MANAGEMENT power The ability of one person to influence another. person-versus-person conflict Conflict that involves two people who are at odds over personality differences, values conflicts, loyalties, or any number of issues. SEEING ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP CORPORATIONWIDE A sense of accomplishment or lasting contribution MAJOR THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Relevance Timing four Do you sometimes worry about the success of your efforts? a. yes THEORY X AND surmise Y MANAGERS REACT pragmatism The belief in the practicality of an action, rather than in strong belief in the idea behind that action. humanism A belief in the worth and dignity of all people. Undesired Effects Physical Psychological Tolerance Dependence Dependence Corporate Diversity Policies Associated degree “ I finally feel like I succeeded at some- Barry Z. Posner and Michael Munson, “The Importance of Values in Understanding Organizational Behavior,” Human Resource Management eighteen , pp. 9–14. 2 List sources of conflict. success to you, Zoey? ” asked the third accommodator Someone who wants to avoid conflict by engaging in positive thinking. Douglas M. McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise, pp. 33–35. BENEFITS OF PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT do with improving customer relations. Hey, and while Redefining Your Personal Values: The Rath proof figure thirteen point one Negotiation-of-Selves Conflicts OUTCOMES OF FAILING TO SELF-DISCLOSE interdependence A relationship in which members of different groups not only must cooperate but also must depend on each other to reach common goals. Human folk and Management Probably the most important improvement Elton Mayo brought about was to change the way management looked at workers. Rather than seeing workers People, Groups, and Their Leaders HOW THE MEDIA CREATES PREJUDICE Profit sharing programs CLICHÉ CONVERSATIONS 6 Robert Sternberg, Successful Intelligence , also retold in Daniel Goleman, Working with Emotional Intelligence , p. 22. 7 Strengthening Your Leadership Power talking to other people about getting something done. Explain behavior-based theories of motivation. Steps toward Achieving Higher Self-Esteem selling peace of mind to people who are out of town or valence The value a person places on a reward . value systems Frameworks people use in developing beliefs about themselves, others, and how they should be treated. values The worth or importance you attach to different factors in your life. values conflict Conflict that occurs when one set of values clashes with another, and a decision has to be made. Motivation: Increasing Productivity Motivation: Increasing Productivity Motivation: Increasing Productivity Motivation: Increasing Productivity Motivation: Increasing Productivity Motivation: Increasing Productivity Motivation: Increasing Productivity Motivation: swelling Productivity Motivation: Increasing Productivity Increased Competition in the Workplace Personal and Organizational Values one hundred and four Theory X THE FOUR PARTS OF THE SELF-CONCEPT figure fifteen point four THE TEN COMMANDMENTS OF GOOD BUSINESS How much we choose to disclose influences the closeness of our relationships. How does your disclosure differ depending on the people in your life? L. K. Frankel and Alexander Fleisher, The Human Factor in Industry , p. eight Your level of optimism will indicate your ability to “ bounce back” from obstacles, even catastrophes—and will increase your likelihood of success. How optimistic are you? Emotional Intelligence , pp. 29–30. eleven Overly competitive, perfectionist Define positive psychology. People, Groups, and their Leaders People, Groups, and their Leaders People, Groups, and their Leaders People, Groups, and their Leaders People, Groups, and their Leaders People, Groups, and their Leaders Goleman, Emotional Intelligence, pp. 8, 291–296. THE HOLMES–RAHE READJUSTMENT SCALE Conscious communication Unconscious communication Sender Results Oriented pare the outcomes of the following two true stories as Case Study Questions one What are the sources of conflict in this case? two Is the solution a win-win? Explain . three If Hans should come up with another situation like this one, what would you do if you were Norma? If you were Mr. Carlson? HIGH-AND LOW-CONTEXT CULTURE EXAMPLES True friendship case study ten point two The Never-Ending Game flow eighty-eight optimal experience eighty-eight organizational citizenship behavior ninety-one seven major life changes Loss, separation, relocation, a change in relationship, a change in direction, a change in health, and personal growth. S. Pearce/PhotoLink/Getty Images/DIL figure 5.1 SOCIAL FACTORS OF A GENERATION A WARM ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE Describe how to apply emotional intelligence. Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise . See also Rensis Likert, The Human Organization . Marshall Sashkin and Richard L. Williams, “Does Fairness Make a Difference ? ” Organizational Dynamics nineteen , pp. 56–58 . relationship selling Forming meaningful relationships with your customers, which makes them much more likely to return and buy from you again. Extrinsic Rewards Performance bonuses working it out fourteen point one copy A OR TYPE B PERSONALITY BEHAVIORS How Our Bodies Adapt to Stress Define conflict analysis. Stephen R. Covey, The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People . Percentage of white males in the workforce THE expected OF WORKPLACE DIVERSITY SOURCES OF CONFLICT Cognitive Thinking Reasoning Categorization Boxes one Healthy self-esteem. Start liking yourself more and you will be happier. Sounds simple, doesn’t it? The point is that whatever works to increase your self-esteem—such as the strategies you ’ve read in previous chapters—will be the same strategies that will improve your overall attitude of happiness. low-context culture A culture in which a written agreement, such as a contract, can be taken at face value. high-context culture A culture in which social context surrounding a written document is far more important than the document itself: One must be very careful about cultural norms, nonverbal behaviors on both sides, and anything else involving the overall atmosphere of the communication. WORKING WITH HIGHCONTEXT CULTURES WHY DO PEOPLE JOIN GROUPS ? Leonard D. Goodstein and W. Warner Burke, “Creating Successful Organizational Change,” Organizational Dynamics nineteen , pp. 9–11. fourteen functional conflict three hundred and forty-four inner conflict three hundred and forty-four institutionalized conflict three hundred and forty-nine intragroup conflict three hundred and forty-five intergroup conflict 345 lose-lose strategy three hundred and fifty low conformers three hundred and fifty-four negotiation-of-selves conflict three hundred and forty-eight “ Top Managers and TQM Success: One More Look After All These Years,” The Academy of Management Executive, November 1998, pp. 37–49. two point two Steps toward Combating Low Self-Esteem by Defeating the Pathological Critic one two three four reward power Power that comes from the user’s ability to control or influence others with something of value to them. coercive power Power that depends on the threat of possible punishment. networking power Power that is attained by gaining contacts and knowing the right people. expert power Power that comes from a person’s knowledge or skill in areas that are critical to the success of the firm. charismatic power Power that is based on the attractiveness a person has to others. The following are other misperceptions that affect people’s understanding about ethics: Stephen R. Covey, The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People , pp. 66–67. Loss explicate the importance of intercultural communication in today ’s professional world. figure one point one private development and growth view X & Y Transactional analysis emotional intelligence The ability to see and control your own emotions and to understand the emotional states of other people. Goleman, Emotional Intelligence, p. 63. Associate’s degree Associate’s degree Associate’s degree nical support staff at a midsized biotech single men on Match.com, and Jennifer had to quickly BUSINESS ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Revision of personal habits twenty-four case study three point one Anthony’s Confrontation David C. McClelland, Human Motivation. See also R. B. McCall, “Academic Underachievers,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 3 , pp. 15–19. 15 In the Workplace : An Unethical Push-Out SITUATION LEVELS OF COMMUNICATION AS THEY RELATE TO DISCLOSURE frustration The feeling people get when goals they are trying to attain are blocked. Agreeable, nonassertive behavior. Cooperative even at the expense of personal goals. vivacity Events Death of spouse School-to-Work Connection : data and Thinking Skills EMPLOYMENT Occupation Level four : Reporting the Facts about Others Quick Links thirty percent chance of developing a stress-related illness Sandra Rittman and Jean Gonzalez, Effective Business Communication , p. two Emotional Timing Labor unions gaining power TEAMS IN QUALITY ORGANIZATIONS You can teach yourself self-discipline, then use your self-discipline to develop and maintain winning habits. Although habits, like getting up early and working out, may not feel good at first, their lasting effects will contribute to your overall success. What are the main characteristics of self-discipline? DEALING WITH EXTERNAL STRESSORS CURIOSITY AS CREATIVITY MANY SOURCES OF STRESS The Gilbreths were instrumental in the evolution of human relations. Do you see evidence of their efforts in your work life? IMPROVING YOUR EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Virginia Satir, Peoplemaking , pp. 75–79. Depression World War II This type of conflict erupts over differences in self-definition. Individuals generally define who they are based on their own self-concepts. Many people see themselves as less worthy than they really are. David Callahan, The Cheating Culture: Why Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead , pp. 44–107. morning-routine-blogs- technology-gtd-andthe-secret/) . Do Covey’s responses seem to mirror the strategies of effective habits he has written about? How can you use an interview like this to think about and clarify your own values? Be prepared to discuss your responses in class. ESSENTIALS OF CORPORATE CULTURE The following elements that make up corporate culture overlap with, interact with, and affect one another. Paradigms: A company’s paradigm is the set of beliefs it operates under. What is the organization about? What is its mission? What are its values? Control Systems: How is the company controlled? Are there rulebooks, handbooks, and procedures manuals? Who makes the decisions? Organizational Structures: Who reports to whom? What does the status hierarchy look like? How does work flow through the company? Norm Brodsky, “ How to Lose Customers,” Inc., July 2005, pp. 49–50. fourteen five Do you believe that good things happen to good people, while bad things happen to bad people ? LEARNING FROM THE OTHER SIDE Major personal injury or illness Explain need-based theories of motivation . The Depression World War II Hawthorne Studies: Informal organization Needs of workers Sonnenberg , “Barriers to Communication,” p. 56. FACTORS INFLUENCING WORKPLACE ETHICS Marital reconciliation working it out 10.2 ANALYZING CONVERSATIONS to encourage the growth of high-quality This ABC formula illustrates how stress develops inside of people. An activating event triggers people to form a belief about it, which in turn shapes the consequences. How much can your beliefs affect the outcome of stressful situations? 1 peak communication two The“ gut level” three Expressing ideas and judgements four Reporting facts about others five Cliché conversation someone and she tells you her personal history and the way she views things, she is enlarging her open pane—at least in her relationship with you. The pane size increases with your desire to be known and understood. Sometimes the act of showing more and more of your inner feelings can be done unwisely, as you will read later in this chapter. Usually, though, the more information that you mutually share with a friend, the more productively that relationship is likely to develop. Compromising Style Equality, brotherhood, and equal opportunity figure seven point six HIGH- TO LOW-CONTEXT CULTURES © Brand X Pictures/Punchstock LOOK TO HISTORY seven Why does positive reinforcement seem to work? Can you think of examples in your life where positive reinforcement was used successfully? Unsuccessfully? eight Overall, which motivation theory do you like best? Why? interact with clients when you’re talking about the impoverished social skills SATISFYING WORK EXPERIENCES Growth of Total Quality Management distancing The distance of physical space that you maintain between other people and yourself. Values conflict, 115–118, 346, three hundred and forty-eight Vanceburg, Martha, fifty-nine Vertical communication, one hundred and seventy-five Villere, Maurice F., 580 Volkwein, J. Fredericks, 579 von Hoelscher, Russ, 534, 581 von Oech, Roger, 329–331, 581 Vroom, Victor H., 134, 146–147, 150, 578 Creating Fairness in the Workplace eye contact, eye movements valence The value a person places on a reward . COMMUNICATING IN AN ORGANIZATION proximity Physical closeness; here, it refers to contact between members of a diverse workplace. Hans Neleman/Getty Images Hans Neleman/Getty Images Hans Neleman/Getty Images © Brand X Pictures/PunchStock © Brand X Pictures/PunchStock Confrontational, assertive, and aggressive. Must win at any cost. VALUES CONFLICTS In the beginning of this chapter, Vineeta was deeply involved in a values conflict. This commonly happens when one set of values clashes with another, and a decision has to be made—sometimes very quickly. These conflicts happen quite often in most people ’s lives. Institutionalized conflict case study four point two Make Your hold Attitude Define motivation. O. Jeff Harris and Sandra J. Hartman, Human Behavior at Work , pp. 270–271. ACHIEVING EMOTIONAL CONTROL Graham Scott, Resolving Conflict With Others and Within Yourself, pp. 160–161. Address/revise organizational policies or structure Content conflict case study nine point one Introducing Quality Management procrastination Putting off until later the things a person should be doing now. idealism one hundred and thirteen integrity one hundred and thirteen instrumental values one hundred and nine personality ethic one hundred and fourteen pragmatism one hundred and thirteen Rath practical one hundred and twenty-one self-justification one hundred and eighteen Conditional positive regard THE NICE CUSTOMER STATEMENT Michael Drafke, The Human Side of Organizations , pp. 211–214. Measuring the Fairness Level of an Organization The Quality Movement Hygiene factors The Environment Dissatisfaction Optimum shovel “ One Best Way” World War I stereotypes Your thoughts or beliefs about specific groups of people. Keith Brofsky/Getty Images/MGH-DIL Why doesn’t everyone just walk around Intrinsic Motivators “ Some extrinsic motivation helps to build self-esteem. But total submission to external motivation leads to destruction of the individual. Extrinsic motivation in the extreme crushes intrinsic motivation. ” —W. Edwards Deming, creator of run Quality Management People with higher self-esteem believe in themselves and believe they can reach these goals. No matter what your occupational experiences are or how your career goals change, with a healthy self-esteem the experiences will be worthwhile and the changes usually successful. PEOPLE, GROUPS, AND THEIR LEADERS COMMUNICATION IN INFORMAL NETWORKS Major change in the number of arguments with spouse W. Richard Plunket, Supervision: The Direction of People at Work , p. 161. case study 17.2 Boss Massaging, or Just Good Politics? These are the four basic sources of conflict. Which of these sources do you feel is easiest to confront and resolve? Although men and women bring the same traits into the business world, many prejudiced employers and co-workers continue to perceive these traits as positive in men and negative in women. Why do these prejudices persist? Source: Robert Fulmer, Practical Human Relations , p. 360. Used with permission. THE POWER OF A COMPLIMENT LWA/Getty Images DECISION MAKING IN TEAMS Managing Personal Change in the Workplace MANAGERS AND ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE Level 2 : Expressing Feelings and Emotions on the “ Gut Level” If you really want someone to understand who you are, you must tell the person what ’s in your “gut. ” Powell explains how you need to be honest about who you are when he says, sixty-three Give examples of potential solutions to a conflict. Brand X Pictures/Punchstock/DIL Brand X Pictures/Punchstock/DIL Robert M. Bramson, Coping with Difficult People , p. seventy thirteen Trouble with in-laws rudimentary FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION Sean Justice/Getty Images power needs Desired by individuals who want to control and influence other people. pragmatism Values system than emphasizes practicality and usefulness of ideas. prejudice The outcome of prejudging a person. Prejudice in communication is the unwillingness to listen to members of groups the listener believes are inferior, such as other ethnic groups or women; it can also take more subtle forms ; how you feel as a result of the stereotypes you believe in. persuasive ability won. The club then Gestures and Their Meanings Physical therapist aides See David Callahan, The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead . THE SEVEN MAJOR LIFE CHANGES Muriel James and Dorothy Jongeward Born to Win , op. cit . , pp. 69–70. People, Groups, and Their Leaders one hundred and ninety Clayton Alderfer, Existence, Relatedness, & Growth , pp. 12–26 . positive attitude A position resulting from healthy self-esteem, optimism, extraversion, and personal control . © BananaStock/PunchStock Hierarchy of needs Social respect and admiration Eligibility Interviewers, government programs avoider Someone who would rather not be around conflict at all and values neutrality highly. Act of two thousand and seven was introduced into Congress but has not yet been made into law. These changing laws illustrate the complexity of the issue of whistleblowing. Some of the strategies available to the person who faces the moral choices of the whistleblower include: Myers, Social Psychology, Chapter nine INTERNATIONAL AND INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION CHAPTER TWELVE SUMMARY Chapter Summary by Learning Objectives one Explain the importance of creativity. Business factors, such as the number and quality of good products created, are affected strongly by the creativity of the people in an organization. Although positive reinforcement can increase people ’s willingness to try out new ideas and to be creative, creativity is more likely increased by intrinsic motivation. Competitiveness depends on creativity as does success at business or nearly anything else. two Define creativity. Creativity is the ability to produce ideas, or solutions to problems that are unique, appropriate, and valuable. It has to do with self-esteem and, in turn, with relationships with others. In a nutshell, creativity is thinking up original and useful ideas. three Discuss the relationship between perception and creativity. Whatever model of creativity one uses, perception is nearly always the first step. Perception is one’s unique way of seeing the world. If problem solving is the issue, perception also means perceiving the problem correctly. three hundred and thirty-two Retail salespersons ashamed of or afraid to share with others, such as things they regret or consider failures. If you are shy or secretive, your hidden pane might be quite large. As a close relationship develops and the open pane grows bigger, the hidden pane will become smaller. Increased trust in someone will help you decrease the size of the hidden pane. You will withhold fewer and fewer details about yourself. conditional positive regard Acceptance of individuals as worthy only when they behave in a certain way . C. S. Carver, C. Pozo, S. D. Harris, V. Noriega, M. F. Scheier, D. S. Robinson, A. S. Ketcham, F. L. Moffat Jr., and K. C. Clark, “ How Coping Mediates the Effect of Optimism on Distress: A ponder of Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology sixty-five , pp. 375–390. resign feedback Give feedback Identify your personal values. Ibid. Myers, Social Psychology. Instrumental values are those you use in your everyday life to achieve your terminal or end-point values; that is, values directly related to your long-term goals and dreams. Can you think of an instrumental value of yours that is helping you achieve a terminal value? Source: Based on M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values , pp. 5–12. working it out eighteen point three WORKPLACE flu reinforcement theory Explains human behavior in terms of repetition. Behavior that is rewarded enough times will be repeated, whereas behavior that repeatedly receives no reward will probably discontinue. Colorblind/Getty Images Colorblind/Getty Images Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence , p. 34. 3 High-quality work performance Self-Awareness and Self-Disclosure Attitudes Vietnam War working it out eight point two QUALITY OF WORK LIFE case study 19.2 Tita ’s Skills Several factors go into communication. Major factors include attitudes and values, conscious and unconscious communication, and timing. Who do you think plays a more important role in effective communication— the sender or the receiver? This source of power comes from gaining contacts. Can networking help you strengthen other areas of power? Identify the types of conflict. Martin Seligman, Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your Life . four Deming’s fourteen Points on the passage to Quality Organizations functional conflict Constructive conflict. dysfunctional conflict Destructive conflict. bers met to decide how to salvage the Explain why people join groups. gut-level communication Level of communication in which feelings are expressed honestly. A world at peace, free of war and conflict Discard Irrational code © Creatas/PictureQuest case study seven point one The Mysterious Strangers Autocratic Leaders Naturalist Intelligence The person who is high in this type of intelligence has an understanding of nature and natural processes. This person becomes a Compare and contrast values and attitudes. Imagesource/Picture Quest They had to compare notes on their win- Sexual difficulties level with people of both sexes and of many races, ethnic groups, and nationalities. a self-respect Positive self-esteem. leadership The ability to influence others to work toward the goals of an organization. MEASURING PRODUCTIVITY IN THE WORKPLACE person out of here, or I’ll be taking my business key terms bad news skills four hundred and seven going the extra mile four hundred and twelve good feelings and solutions four hundred and two figure thirteen point two THE THOMAS–KILMAN CONFLICT MODEL figure 10.1 THE EIGHT DIMENSIONS OF INTELLIGENCE List the outcomes of failing to self-disclose. Examine the role of nonverbal communication. If you ask the average person what the difference is between attitudes and values, he or she might say that they are the same. They are not. Attitudes are often affected by values, and values conflicts with other people certainly involve attitude problems—but values are a deeper, and in some ways, more important part of everyone’s lives and organizations. © BananaStock/Alamy/DIL Dennis Wise/Getty Images/MGH-DIL Help / FAQ want to work on, apply Eberle ’s SCAMPER strategy to the problem . To do this, ask yourself “ To come up with a creative solution, what might I . . . ” : S ubstitute ? Is there a person, place, or object that might work better? Combine ? Are there ideas, goals, or purposes that could be combined? A dapt ? Are there parts of the plan or the process I can reshape or fit to this issue? M odify ? How and what can I alter, revise, enlarge, or shrink to resolve this issue? P ut to another use ? What can I put to different or new uses to resolve the problem? E liminate? What can be omitted, simplified, or removed? R earrange ? Can I change the order of events, the plan itself, or the desired outcome? What new solutions did you come up with? figure seven point one Attitudes and values FACTORS OF COMMUNICATION of becoming an effective leader. Still others emphasize the situation in which a leader finds himself or herself. They show how leaders who were unquestionably effective in one situation were much less effective in another, dissimilar situation. Which position do you agree with? In the Workplace : In the Minority SITUATION that will make this person like herself better, or am I figure two point one Ideal Self The main theories of motivation are listed here. As you learn about each theory, think about which one you feel is the most useful . Which theory seems most accurate to you? To succeed with customers, you must learn to bolster their self-esteem. When customers are uneasy about purchases, your ability to comfort them will help them trust you and your product or service. How can you tell if a customer’s selfesteem is interfering in his or her interaction with you? What are ways to support a customer’s self-esteem in that case? thirty-five Douglas M. McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise , pp. 32–37. Also, T. Merriden, “The Way We Were: An Assessment of Douglas McGregor’s Theories X and Y,” Management Today, June 1998, pp. 111–112. thirty-six Three Critical Psychologica States Self-respect and high self-esteem Medium weekly earnings in two thousand and seven $1,497 1,427 1,165 Saul W. Gellerman, Management by Motivation , pp. 231–232. figure six point four HOW TO INCREASE YOUR SELF-ACTUALIZATION figure three point three FOUR OUTCOMES OF FAILING TO SELF-DISCLOSE Applying McClelland’s Theory MAINTAINING A PRODUCTIVE WORKPLACE Keith Davis, “Management Communication and the Grapevine,” Harvard Business Review thirty-one , pp. 45–47 . CREATIVITY IN THE WORKPLACE Maintaining a Productive Workplace Maintaining a Productive Workplace Maintaining a Productive Workplace Maintaining a Productive Workplace Maintaining a Productive Workplace Maintaining a Productive Workplace Maintaining a Productive Workplace Maintaining a Productive Workplace Maintaining a Productive Workplace Standards of equity positive psychology five hundred and thirty-seven résumé five hundred and forty-two sandwich generation five hundred and thirty-one self-discipline five hundred and thirty-three self-direction five hundred and thirty-five short-term goals 535 stress interview 547 Pre-Baby Boomers case study 8.2 Through the Ranks case study 5.2 Honest Jane Comstock Images/PictureQuest/DIL 2012 In the Workplace : Megan’s huge Jump to Conclusions SITUATION Janis Christie/Getty Images/DIL SUBSTANCE ABUSE TERMINOLOGY low conformers Individuals who think independently, solve problems creatively, and often cause some conflict in the process. low conformers Individuals who think independently, solve problems creatively, and often cause some conflict in the process. Wisdom in understanding life An important step in getting rid of irrational beliefs is to dispute, or argue against, beliefs that sabotage your ability to stay calm in stressful situations. Think about your beliefs; if any are self-defeating, eliminate them. How can you get rid of self-defeating beliefs? Atomic warfare Explain what makes up a good attitude. Teams in Quality Organizations Teams in Quality Organizations Teams in Quality Organizations Teams in Quality Organizations Teams in Quality Organizations Teams in Quality Organizations Teams in Quality Organizations SOLUTIONS TO THE “ NINE-DOT” PUZZLE : Alan Deutschman, “Dealing with Sexual Harassment,” Fortune, November 4, 1991, pp. 145–146. thirty-seven Ron Chapple/Thinkstock/DIL Information known to others Motivation : Increasing Productivity one hundred and thirty In the Workplace : Vineeta’s Values SITUATION Possible answers include: • What most people around me consider appropriate behavior. • Whatever reflects the Golden Rule. • Whatever is not against the law. • What my feelings tell me to do. • Whatever is in line with my religious beliefs. • Whatever is customary in my society. • Whatever would be approved of by a neutral panel of people in my line of work. • Whatever doesn’t hurt other people. case study twelve point two Smarts, Luck, or Skill? right? But some of those people in pro- Carol Hymowitz, “Five Main Reasons Why Managers Fail,” The Wall Street Journal, May 2, 1988, p. 27. HOLDING ON TO SELFDEFEATING BELIEFS TRBfoto/Getty Images/MGH-DIL eight What are the major differences between a high-context culture and a low-context culture? What steps could you take to prevent misunderstandings when dealing with a culture that is opposite in context from your own? working it out seven two THE moment OF FEEDBACK Ron Krisel/Getty Images WINNING ON BOTH SIDES Unconditional positive regard MORE COMPLICATED THAN IT LOOKS Data entry keyers SELF-ESTEEM AFFIRMATIONS unconditional positive regard The acceptance of individuals as worthy and valuable regardless of their behavior. Lucas Lenci/Getty Images Sometimes in international business settings, you will be asked to agree to things that make you feel ethically uncomfortable. You need to determine if these requests reflect genuine cultural traditions of the people with which you are working, or if an ethical conflict is occurring. How can you determine whether a situation is truly unethical, or if it is just your personal discomfort with the issue? A positive attitude can make all the difference in your career and your personal life. What are some changes you can make to improve your attitude? Noel Hendrickson/Getty Images values conflict Conflict that occurs when one set of values clashes with another, and a decision has to be made. values conflict Conflict that occurs when one set of values clashes with another, and a decision has to be made. case study thirteen point two The Rush ordinance Tetra Images/Getty Images DIFFERENT WAYS TO LEAD seven Explain the importance of intercultural communication in today ’s professional world. International and intercultural communication become more important as the world becomes smaller. One can see international cultures as either high-context or lowcontext. Doing effective business with other cultures requires some knowledge of context expectations. Assess Your Knowledge REDUCING CORPORATE STRESS Ways to Go the Extra Mile figure fifteen point two GIVING A CUSTOMER BAD NEWS key terms assertiveness two hundred and sixty aggressiveness two hundred and sixty defensive behavior/ defensiveness two hundred and sixty eight intelligences two hundred and fifty-two emotional competence two hundred and fifty-five characteristic INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC REWARDS Describe the process of rationalizing unethical behavior. Define leadership. DEFENSIVE BEHAVIORS Increase Your Creativity figure 13.3 CONFLICT solution METHODS four Low interest in physical intimacy stalled by a bunch of people who don’t understand © Photodisc/Getty Images ing, “What if someone owned a company case study fifteen point two International Business Calling “ The Philosophy Organized of Manufacturers” pre-labor union WHEN YOUR custom ARE OTHER BUSINESSES Ryan McVay/Getty Images/MGH-DIL EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Simon Bottomley/Getty Images working it out seventeen point two THE PARABLE OF THE SADHU psychological contract An agreement that is not written or spoken but is understood between people. psychological contract An agreement that is not written or spoken but is understood between people. working it out 13.1 YOUR CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLE rationalize To justify unethical behavior with excuses . Photodisc/Getty Images/DIL Institutionalized Conflict Institutionalized conflict occurs when a conflict factor is built into the structure or the policies of the organization. Some organizations encourage conflict, just by the way they are structured. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards Marital separation from mate psychological contract two hundred and thirty-eight quality movement two hundred and twenty-two rewards two hundred and twenty-two Ferrell and Gardiner, In Pursuit of Ethics, p. twenty-eight Medioimages/Photodisc/Getty Images emotional intelligence two hundred and fifty-five emotional mind two hundred and fifty-five first-, second-, and third-degree games two hundred and sixty-five game two hundred and sixty-four Desired Effects Breaking Down the Resistance to Change in Your Organization Competition over resources or power within a company case study 11.1 The Web Page Fiasco racism four hundred and thirty-nine self-fulfilling prophecy four hundred and fifty-two sexism four hundred and forty-one sexual harassment four hundred and forty-eight stereotypes four hundred and thirty-four five William Bridges, Transitions: Making Sense of Life’s Changes , pp. 90–99. six Bad working conditions Unfair treatment critical thinking questions nine What is included in the idea of self-discipline? What are some examples of everyday behaviors that require self-discipline that you are currently engaging in? Can you succeed without these? 10. What is meant by finding your niche? What is one suggestion to help you in doing this? What are you doing in order to find your niche? case study sixteen point two Two Against One Groups help people to work more effectively and find satisfaction through interaction. What are some of the ways that groups form in the workplace? Gini Graham Scott, Resolving Conflict With Others and Within Yourself , p. one hundred and fifty-nine Satisfying the objectives of the organization Physical therapist assistants Saul W. Gellerman, “Why ‘Good’ Managers Make Bad Ethical Choices,” Harvard Business Review, July–August, 1986, p. eighty-eight Ragnar Schmuck/Getty Images Ideal Self ideal self The way you would like to be or plan to become. Tolerate value differences, listen, communicate These qualities of the “ new corporate culture” are based in part on : Joseph D. O’Brian, “The ‘New Corporate Culture’: Mainly sensible Common Sense,” Supervisory Management thirty-nine , p. nine treating customers with that level of Define ethics. STRESS AND accent MANAGEMENT Reza Estakhrian/Getty Images Wendy Hope/Getty Images sexism Prejudice and discrimination based on gender. sexism Prejudice and discrimination based on gender. Ryan McVay/Getty Images/DIL Ryan McVay/Getty Images/DIL Ryan McVay/Getty Images/DIL Ryan McVay/Getty Images/DIL case study nine point two The Reorganization Meeting case study three point two The Angry Computer Technician Home health aides Knights of Labor CODES OF ETHICS Judith Rodin, “Aging and Health: Effects of the Sense of Control,” Science 233 , pp. 1271–1276. Susan Folkman and Judith Tedlie Moskowitz, “Stress, Positive Emotion, and Coping,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 9, no. four , pp. 115–118 . Sam Roberts/Getty Images How Well Do EAPs Help Companies? gloss ethics in the context of the U.S. workplace. reserved PRODUCTIVITY AT WORK Digital Vision/Getty Images/MGH-DIL Suzanne C. Segerstrom and Gregory E. Miller, “ Psychological Stress and the Human Immune System: A Meta-Analytic Study of thirty Years of Inquiry,” Psychological Bulletin one hundred and thirty , American THE JOHARI WINDOW AFTER ESTABLISHED RELATIONSHIP Digital Vision/Getty Images MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE case study 15.1 Disaster in Aisle Three Steve Mason/Getty Images/DIL assignment to North Africa, under mys- Immanuel Kant, “To the Metaphysic of Morals,” in The Critique of Pure Reason and Other Ethical Treatises , pp. 392–394. 12 MAJOR LIFE CHANGES Instrumental Values ISSUES IN CUSTOMER SERVICE Ryan McVay/Getty Images Ryan McVay/Getty Images regression two hundred and eighty-eight seven major life changes two hundred and eighty-four seven stages of personal change two hundred and eighty-five Ability to participate in decision making self-awareness The knowledge of how you are being perceived by others. Report DMCA working it out three point one THE “ OPENER SCALE” QUESTIONNAIRE THE JAPANESE APPROACH Katarzyna Wandycz, “Divorce Kills, ” Forbes, October 25, one thousand, nine hundred and ninety-three case study one point one The Side-Takers What Does Ethical Mean? Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behavior: Concepts, Controversies, and Applications , p. 445. 4 Give examples of global ethics issues. Steve Mason/Getty Images the health information technology field at figure seven point seven INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION TRAPS figure six point three MASLOW ’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS figure four point three THEORIES X AND Y: THE BASIC DIFFERENCES SELF-ESTEEM AT WORK Understand the importance of positive attitudes as they apply to Theory X and Theory Y managers. key terms accommodator three hundred and fifty-two avoider three hundred and fifty-one collaborator three hundred and fifty-three competitor three hundred and fifty-one compromiser three hundred and fifty-one concession bargaining 359 conflict 344 content conflict 345 dysfunctional conflict 344 Economic prepossession Describe the physical effects of stress. The three origins of prejudice are social ones , cognitive , and emotional . Which type of prejudice can be most damaging? Jose Luis Pelaez/Getty Images critical thinking questions Aggressive or bossy personality Compare and contrast type A and type B personality behaviors. figure four point one HOW OPTIMISTIC ARE YOU? High Priority narrate the seven stages of personal change. Death of close friend A BUYER’S MARKET After a long weekend thinking about the goals and GROUPS IN THE WORKPLACE organization citizenship behavior An attitude of willingness to go above and beyond the behaviors that are generally associated with life in the workplace. autonomy Independence, the ability to act and make decisions on one’s own without undue interference from management. avoider Someone who would rather not be around conflict at all and values neutrality highly. Establish a Bond with the Customer Information is Stated WHAT DO CUSTOMERS REALLY WANT ? YOUR CUSTOMER ’S SELF-ESTEEM Resources on Stress Financial Problems Image Source/Punchstock/DIL compulsive gambling The inability to control one’s betting habit. twenty-five References with further characteristics of the scale: Rich Crandal “ The caliber of Self-Esteem and Related Constructs,” in J. P. Robinson and P. R. Shaver, eds. , Measures of Social Psychological Attitudes, rev. ed. , pp. 80–82; M. Rosenberg, Society and the Adolescent Self-Image ; E. Silber and Jean Tippett, “Self-Esteem: Clinical Assessment and diameter Validation,” sixteen Psychological Reports, pp. 1017–1071 , 1965; Ruth C. Wylie, The Self-Concept, rev. ed. , especially pp. 180–189 . MOTIVATION : INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY © Ryan McVay/Photodisc/Getty Images Information known to others Information not known to others INDEX Fullerton, Howard N., Jr., 432, five hundred and eighty-three Fulmer, Robert R., 442, five hundred and eighty Functional conflict, three hundred and forty-four Functional résumé, five hundred and forty-three portion favors, four hundred and seventy-six SELF-DISCIPLINE IN YOUR LIFE Issues to Consider communication The process of giving and receiving through listening and speaking, ideas, feelings, and information. In the Workplace : Motivated . . . or Not? SITUATION Disagreement on basic values and beliefs Follow-Up Letters Individual and Organizational Change Individual and Organizational Change Individual and Organizational Change Individual and Organizational Change Individual and Organizational Change Individual and Organizational Change Tuning Out Some people simply refuse to listen to co-workers or other people due to prejudice; they won ’t listen to people from different ethnic backgrounds or social classes, or from different parts of the world. Some people won ’t listen to teachers, or young people, or to old people ; some don’t think men are credible, some don’t think women are credible. Prejudice can Maxwell Maltz, Psycho-Cybernetics: A unique Way to Get More Out of Life , pp. 91–93. thirty HERZBERG ’S TWO-FACTOR view A POSITIVE ATTITUDE WILL TAKE YOU PLACES © Andersen Ross/Getty Images Explain the importance of a positive attitude as it applies to optimal experiences. much planning, the results were turning figure 17.5 COMPANIES THAT CARE inner conflict Conflict within an individual; it might involve values, loyalties, or priorities. context A point of reference when communicating. Information not known to others ten “ mental locks” Rules or beliefs that keep people from being as creative as they otherwise could be. ten “ mental locks” Rules or beliefs that keep people from being as creative as they otherwise could be . © Blend Images/Punchstock/DIL working it out nine point one HOW IS THE “ WEATHER” IN YOUR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE ? Psychological dependence, five hundred and four Pukkala, E., five hundred and seventy-six Putnam, L. L., five hundred and eighty-two Jenny Acheson/Getty Images to overdisclose, you might be correct. However, in most cases, people withhold information in order to: working it out 12.1 HOW CREATIVE ARE YOU? SATISFYING THE CUSTOMER Jess Alford/Getty Images/DIL V. W. Tuchman, “ Developmental Sequences in Small Groups,” Psychological Bulletin sixty-three , pp. 384–399. seven legitimate power Power based on the position a person holds in an organization that is effective only when followers believe in the structure that produces this power. Task significance Steve McAlister/Getty Images After all, they are our customers. without from people in School-to-Work Connection : Interpersonal Skills This exercise is designed to stimulate creativity in groups. Each pair of words should suggest a third idea in which the elements of both are combined. How many new ideas can groups of four or five people create three hundred and thirty-five Self-Awareness and Self-Disclosure Self-Awareness and Self-Disclosure Self-Awareness and Self-Disclosure working it out 15.2 ROLE-PLAYING THE CUSTOMER The civil rights movement ’s first major victory came ten years earlier than the Civil Rights quality with Brown vs. the Board of Education, a one thousand, nine hundred and fifty-four U.S. Supreme circus case that outlawed school segregation. Jochen Sand/Digital Vision/Getty Images up! Are you trying to get us regular grunts working it out three point two YOUR FEELINGS ABOUT SELF-DISCLOSURE figure three point four LEVELS OF SELF-DISCLOSURE Baby Boomers Follow Us learn about everyone. ” She looked forward to getting SELF-AWARENESS AND SELF-DISCLOSURE Theory Y key terms active listening one hundred and sixty-seven context one hundred and seventy-one displays one hundred and seventy-three distancing one hundred and seventy-four emblems one hundred and seventy-three filtering one hundred and sixty-nine grapevine one hundred and seventy-six high-context culture one hundred and seventy-seven ACKNOWLE DG M E NTS case study twelve point one Inland’s Widget Woes PREJUDICED ATTITUDES Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World Thriving in a Changing World A comfortable and prosperous life Stockbyte/Getty Images Stockbyte/Getty Images Stockbyte/Getty Images working it out one point one COMMUNICATING WITH A SUPERVISOR Even though our values are often shaped by our families, value conflicts can happen in any household. Conflicting values are not restricted to the workplace. Would your handling of value conflicts differ depending on the environment? figure eighteen point four EAPS : HOW MUCH CAN THEY HELP? Bureaucratic Culture slang in this type of culture includes terms like “ cost efficiency ” and “following procedures. ” Order, predictability, and avoidance of the whims of any individual are all important values. In this type of culture, any information you get is likely to be in a formal memo or meeting. All of the power in the company is based on what is “ legal and rational. ” Sandra Baker/Getty Images FUNCTIONING ALCOHOLICS Tanya Constantine/Getty Images Ron Rovtar/Getty Images In the Workplace : More Than Two Ways SITUATION ageism Prejudice and discrimination toward older people. Understand the five major levels of communication as they relate to disclosure. 50 percent chance of illness REFERENCES Psychological Association, posted July 4, 2004, www.apa.org/ releases/stress_immune.html . key terms blind pane fifty-seven cliché conversation sixty-two gut-level communication sixty-four hidden pane fifty-six ideas and judgments sixty-three agement had given existing employees working it out two point two TESTING YOUR LOCUS OF CONTROL Do you ever overreact to certain events or situations? What do you think are the reasons behind it? Dale Carnegie, How to Stop Worrying and Start Living . twenty Low Priority key terms ageism four hundred and forty-five bias four hundred and thirty-five cognitive categorization four hundred and thirty-seven discrimination four hundred and thirty-four economic prejudice four hundred and forty conform Employment Opportunity Commission four hundred and thirty-six David G. Myers, “The Secret of Happiness,” pp. 38–45. Build positive and stable self-concept stereotypes Your thoughts or beliefs about specific groups of people. prejudice How you feel as a result of the stereotypes you believe in. discrimination Your behavior, or what you do as a result of your stereotypes and prejudice. major life changes three hundred and seventy-two stress three hundred and seventy-two stressor three hundred and seventy-two type A and type B personalities three hundred and seventy-nine Major change in eating habits “ The Anatomy of a Message,” Ford’s Insider , pp. 4–9. SELF-DISCLOSURE IS A PART OF EVERY RELATIONSHIP Csikszentmihalyi, Creativity,, pp. 59–61 . Robert A. Cooke, Business Ethics: A Perspective . 4 his disappearance was never solved, and people today figure 15.5 BUSINESSES GOING THE EXTRA MILE Bill Gates, Business at the Speed of Thought , pp. 267–271. Eric Audras/Photoalto/Picture Quest/DIL Encouraging Complaints Medium Priority Aslan phenomenon A circumstance that exists when people make rules, then follow them even after the situations to which they originally applied no longer exist. TYPES OF SELF-ESTEEM figure 12.2 CORPORATE CREATIVITY explicate the importance of a code of ethics. Maintaining a Climate Happiness and contentment means! Somebody is going to get the ax! ” figure seven point three WHAT DO THESE GESTURES MEAN ? Information known to self Information known to self Scientific management principle of individual rights An ethical philosophy that holds that all decisions should respect basic human rights and the dignity of the individual . Musical Choices translate the significance of emotional intelligence and how it compares with earlier theories of measuring intelligence. Johari Window fifty-five nonconversation sixty-three open pane fifty-five peak communication sixty-four repress fifty-seven self-awareness fifty-four five Do you like to engage in activities in which you might influence others? a. yes Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton, “ A Comparative Analysis of Situationalism and nine point nine Management by Principle,” Organizational Dynamics, Spring 1982, pp. 20–43 . Stewart R. Segall, “Reflections of Your Management Style, ” Supervisory Management thirty-six , pp. 1–2. eleven Fact or Fiction ? Financial problems reaction patterns, so that you can examine them—and, if necessary, change them. Perhaps your feelings get hurt too easily. You may conclude that you are taking matters too personally, or that you overreact to certain situations. You may get negative responses when offering your opinion. Perhaps your gut-level sharing is too confrontational. When a pattern like that becomes clear, you can change. You will never be able to explore your strengths and weaknesses unless you learn to communicate on a gut level. two simplest principles four hundred and four corporate culture A system of shared values and assumptions throughout an organization. Relevance timing is similar to situational timing. It simply means that communication should fit the other topics being discussed. eight There is no objective way to measure my effectiveness . a James L. Adams, Conceptual Blockbusting: A Guide to Better Ideas , pp. 25–33 . Stress can be caused by external factors that are both ordinary and out of your control, ranging from an uncomfortable environment to frustration and conflict. How do you manage the stress caused by factors beyond your control? Recent research suggests that there is more than one way to measure intelligence. Where do your strengths and skills lie? To which intelligences do they relate most closely? Problem-Solving Style you ’ve been trying to show the rest of us working it out 11.1 violent WORLD TOLERANCE TEST working it out 14.2 STRESS SELF-TEST ERG Theory Clayton Alderfer Frameworks people use in developing beliefs about themselves, others, and how they should be treated. Spranger’s Six Value Systems Theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious. Major change in sleeping habits Explain the importance of creativity . ten Telling someone to stop his or her unwanted sexual behavior usually doesn’t do any good. Source: Bureau of Labour Statistics, Current Population Survey three The speed of the transition in management attitudes. Employees with years of experience working under a boss with Theory X assumptions are going to be a challenge. If a manager tries to use Theory Y principles all at once, employees will often react as though the supervisor is a pushover. figure two point two THE ORIGINS OF SELF-ESTEEM PERCEPTION AND CREATIVITY WHAT IS YOUR DEFINITION OF ETHICAL? working it out ten point one NEW WAYS TO RESPOND Mark Daniel, Self-Scoring Emotional Intelligence Tests , pp. 1–2. 9 Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, & Annie McKee, Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence . pp. 105–109. ten inner conflict The pressure you feel when you are forced to make a choice. Edward T. Hall, “ How Cultures Collide,” Psychology Today ten , pp. 66–74 . See also Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture . Sam Keen and Anne V. Fox, Telling Your Story: A direct to Who You Are and Who You Can Be , pp. 22–24. Long-Term Yearly Schedule Jan Factors such as trust, consistency, and honesty— among many others—shape the overall fairness of an organization, and in turn shape that organization ’s climate . Which factor do you consider most important? Source: Marshall Sashkin and Richard L. Williams, “Does Fairness Make A Difference?” Organizational Dynamics, Autumn 1990, pp. 56–71. Reprinted by permission of the publisher from Organizational Dynamics, Autumn one thousand, nine hundred and ninety American Management Association, New York. All rights reserved. kindergarten? Why don’t the customers too. In the end, he found it was easier to let relationships go rather than admit his problem to others. As they talked and he disclosed more of his feelings, Tyrone realized that his habit of secrecy had made the problem worse because it allowed him to avoid dealing with it. On the other hand, after talking with his sister, he entered debt counseling and soon found that his debt problems, along with his self-esteem, quickly recovered. heresy on items of content, or “rightness” of ideas case study seven point two Un-Gorgeous George working it out sixteen point two GENDER STEREOTYPES IN THE MEDIA REINFORCEMENT THEORY AND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
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