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Dog

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years ✓ study ✓ people ✓ wolves ✓ humans ✓ domestic ✓ breeds ✓ pets ✓ dogs ✓ Canis ✓ wolf ✓ pet ✓ dog ✓ human ✓ species

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This dental arrangement has been modified by adaptation over the past 60 million years for diets composed of meat, for crushing vegetation, or for the loss of the carnassial function altogether as in seals, sea lions, and walruses. [10] In 2021, a literature review of the current evidence infers that the dog was domesticated in Siberia 23,000 years ago by ancient North Siberians, then later dispersed eastward into the Americas and westward across Eurasia. [47][page needed] However, neutering increases the risk of urinary incontinence in female dogs[48] and prostate cancer in males[49] and osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, cruciate ligament rupture, obesity, and diabetes mellitus in either sex.

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<p style="display: none;"> <script type="application/ld+json">{ "@context": "https://schema.org", "@type": "Article", "image": { "@type": "ImageObject", "url": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/images/logo.png", "width": 531, "height": 628 }, "name": "Article", "url": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/", "description": " ... https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/", "headline": ".", "dateCreated": "2022-01-18T03:00:18+01:00", "datePublished": "2022-01-18T03:00:18+01:00", "dateModified": "2022-01-18T03:00:18+01:00", "articleBody": "The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is a domesticated descendant of the wolf which is characterized by an upturning tail. The dog was the first species to be domesticated by hunter-gatherers over 15000 years ago before the development of agriculture. It derived from an ancient extinct wolf and the modern grey wolf is the dog's nearest living relative. Source: https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/.", "mainEntityOfPage": { "@type": "WebPage", "@id": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/#webpage" }, "publisher": { "@type": "Organization", "@id": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/#organization", "url": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/", "name": "ArtikelSchreiber.com", "description": "Your free SEO text generator | ArtikelSchreiber.com", "logo": { "@type": "ImageObject", "@id": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/#logo", "url": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/images/logo.png", "width": 531, "height": 628 }, "image": { "@type": "ImageObject", "@id": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/#logo", "url": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/images/logo.png", "width": 531, "height": 628 }, "sameAs": [ "https://www.unaique.net/" ] }, "keywords": "years, study, people, wolves, humans, domestic, breeds, pets, dogs, Canis, wolf, pet, dog, human, species", "author": { "@type": "Person", "name": "ArtikelSchreiber.com", "url": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/", "sameAs": [ "https://www.unaique.net/" ] }, "@id": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/#links", "commentCount": "0", "sameAs": [ "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/es/", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/fr", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/it", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/ru/", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/zh", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/jp/", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/ar", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/hi/", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/pt/" ], "speakable": { "@type": "SpeakableSpecification", "xpath": [ "/html/head/title", "/html/head/meta[@name='description']/@content" ] } } </script> </p><br /><br /> The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is a domesticated descendant of the wolf which is characterized by an upturning tail. The dog was the first species to be domesticated by hunter-gatherers over 15,000 years ago, before the development of agriculture. It derived from an ancient, extinct wolf and the modern grey wolf is the dog's nearest living relative. Dog breeds vary widely in shape, size, and color. They have been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors and physical attributes. Due to their long association with humans, dogs have expanded to a large number of domestic individuals and gained the ability to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canids. Canis is the Latin word meaning "dog", and under this genus, he listed the domestic dog, the grey wolf and the golden jackal. Linnaeus published in his Systema Naturae the two-word naming of species (binomial nomenclature) in 1758, listing domestic dogs, wolves and jackals. Linnaeus considered the domestic dog to be a separate species from the wolf because of its upturning tail (cauda recurvata), which is not found in any other canid. In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World published in 2005, the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed under wolf Canis lupus its wild subspecies and proposed two additional subspecies. Wozencraft included hallstromi (the New Guinea singing dog) as another name (junior synonym) for the dingo. The name 'familiaris' is given to a member of the order 'Carnivora'. Carnivorans possess a common arrangement of teeth called carnassials, in which the first lower molar and the last upper premolar possess blade-like enamel crowns that act like shears for cutting meat. The first members of the dog family Canidae appeared 40 million years ago, of which only its subfamily the Caninae survives today in the form of wolf-like and fox- like canines. Today, not all carnivorans are carnivores, such as the insect-eating Aardwolf. Researchers have found that a dog that was found buried with a man and a woman in the Caninae region of India wasn't a local wolf. The dog was dated to 14,223 years ago and had been sprayed with red hematite powder and buried under large, thick basalt blocks. It had died of canine distemper. A new study has suggested that the dog was the first species to be domesticated in the time of hunter-gatherers, which predates agriculture. The study found that most dogs form a sister group to the remains of a Late Pleistocene wolf found in a cave near Thayngen, Switzerland, that dates to 14,500 years ago. A new study has suggested that the dog was first domesticated in Siberia 23,000 years ago by ancient North Siberians, then later dispersed eastward into the Americas and westward across Eurasia. Genetic studies suggest a domestication process commencing over 25,000 years old, in one or several wolf populations in either Europe, the high Arctic, or eastern Asia. The skull, body, and limb proportions vary significantly between breeds, with dogs displaying more phenotypic diversity than can be found within the entire order of carnivores, according to a study. Dogs are the most variable mammal on earth with around 450 globally recognised dog breeds. Most breeds were derived from small numbers of founders within last 200 years. Dog breeds possess distinct traits related to morphology, which include body size, skull shape, tail phenotype, fur type and colour. Their behavioural traits include guarding, herding, and hunting. They also have hypersocial behaviour, boldness and aggression. The most striking example of this dispersal is that of the numerous modern breeds of European lineage during the Victorian era. All healthy dogs, regardless of their size and type, have an identical skeletal structure. The vertebrae on the neck and back have extensions for powerful back muscles to connect to, the long ribs provide plenty of room for the heart and lungs, and the shoulders are unattached to the skeleton allowing great flexibility. The dog's skull has identical components regardless of breed type, but there is significant divergence in terms of skull shape between types. Most dogs naturally have 26 vertebrae in their tails, however, some with naturally short tails have as few as three. A dog's senses include vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and sensitivity to Earth’s magnetic field. Another study has suggested that dogs can see Earth'S Magnetic Field. Coat Dogs display wide variation in coat type, density, length, colour, composition. "double" being familiar with dogs (as well as wolves) originating from colder climates, made up of a coarse guard hair and a soft down hair. Breeds may have an occasional "blaze," stripe, or "star" of white fur on their chest or underside. Premature graying can occur in dogs from as early as one year of age; this is associated with impulsive behaviors, anxiety behaviors and fear of noise. In some hunting dogs the tail is traditionally docked to avoid injuries. Two severe medical conditions affecting dogs are pyometra, affecting unspayed females of all breeds and ages, and Gastric dilatation volvulus (bloat), which affects larger breeds or deep-chested dogs. Both of these are acute conditions and can kill rapidly. Several human foods and ingestibles are toxic to dogs, including chocolate solids, causing theobromine poisoning, onions and garlic, and causing thiosulphate, sulfoxide or disulfide poisoning. Signs of ingestion can include copious vomiting (e.g., from eating cigar butts) or diarrhea. Dogs are also vulnerable to some of the same health conditions as humans, including diabetes, dental and heart disease, epilepsy, cancer, hypothyroidism, and arthritis. The typical lifespan of dogs varies widely among breeds, but for most, the median longevity (the age at which half the dogs in a population have died and half are still alive) ranges from 10 to 13 years. The average lifespan of a mixed-breed dog in England is about two years longer than purebred dogs, according to a study published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. The study also found that increased body weight has been found to be negatively correlated with longevity. Females will experience subsequent estrous cycles semiannually, during which the body prepares for pregnancy. At the peak of the cycle, females will become Estrous, mentally and physically receptive to copulation. Because the ova survive and can be fertilized for a week after ovulation, more than one male can sire the same litter. According to the Humane Society of the United States, three to four million dogs and cats are euthanized each year. An average litter consists of about six puppies. Neutering refers to sterilization of animals, usually by removing the male's testicles or the female'S ovaries and uterus to eliminate the ability to procreate and reduce sex drive. Spaying or castrating dogs helps keep overpopulation down. Neutering reduces problems caused by hypersexuality, especially in male dogs. Spayed female dogs are less likely to develop cancers affecting the mammary glands, ovaries, and other reproductive organs. However, neutering increases the risk of urinary incontinence in females and prostate cancer in males. Inbreeding depression is considered to be due mainly to the expression of homozygous deleterious recessive mutations. In a study of seven dog breeds, it was found that inbreeding decreases litter size and survival. Outcrossing between unrelated individuals, including dogs of different breed, results in the beneficial masking of deleterious mutations in progeny. In a study of Boxer litters, 22% of puppies died before reaching 7 weeks of age. Stillbirth was the most frequent cause of death, followed by infection. Mortality due to infection increased significantly with increases in inbreeding, the study found. Scientists have discovered a set of social-cognitive abilities in domestic dogs. These abilities are not possessed by the dog's closest relatives or other highly intelligent mammals, such as great apes, but rather parallel to kids' social cognitive skills. The ability to understand and communicate with humans more than any other species and they are uniquely attuned to human behaviors. A study found that only 11 fixed genes showed variation between wolves and dogs. These gene variations were unlikely to have been the result of natural evolution and indicate selection on both morphology and behavior during dog domestication. The majority of the genes affecting the fight-or-flight response and emotional processing were found to affect the catecholamine synthesis pathway. A study with Rico, a Border Collie, showed that he knew the labels of over 200 different items. The study also found that Rico was able to perceive information and retain it as knowledge for applying to solve problems. Studies of two dogs suggest that dogs can learn by inference and have advanced memory skills. A study of another Border Collie, "Chaser," documented his learning and memory capabilities. He had learned the names and could associate by verbal command over 1,000 words. One study found that dogs' capabilities are no more exceptional than those of other animals, such as horses, chimpanzees, or cats. A study of 18 household dogs found that they lacked spatial memory, and were more focussed on the "what" of a task rather than the 'where'. Another study revealed that after undergoing training to solve a simple manipulation task, dogs faced with an insoluble version of the same problem look at the human, while socialized wolves do not. Dog communication is how dogs convey information to other dogs, understand messages from humans and translate the information that dogs are transmitting. Communication behaviors of dogs include eye gaze, facial expression, vocalization, body posture (including movements of bodies and limbs), and gustatory communication (scents, pheromones and taste). The dog is probably the most widely abundant large carnivoran living in the human environment. In 2013, the estimated global dog population was between 700 million and 987 million. Most of these dogs live their lives as scavengers and have never been owned by humans, with one study showing their most common response when approached by strangers is to run away. A review of the studies in dogs' competitive effects on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves. The review did mention that dogs are the most abundant and widely distributed terrestrial carnivores. However, the review didn't mention the study that showed dogs compete with wolves for food. Wolves kill dogs wherever they are found together. In some instances, wolves have displayed an uncharacteristic fearlessness of humans and buildings when attacking dogs to the extent that they have to be beaten off or killed. The number of dogs killed each year is relatively low, it induces a fear of wolves entering villages and farmyards to take dogs. Siberian tigers in Russia's Amur river region have killed dogs in the middle of villages. This indicates that the dogs were targeted. Striped hyenas are known to killdogs in their range. leopards have been recorded to have a preference for dogs and consume them, no matter what their size. Researchers have found that dogs from agricultural societies have extra copies of genes involved in starch digestion that contribute to an increased ability to thrive on a starch-rich diet. The dog is nearly universal among human societies. Notable exceptions once included: Dogs were introduced to Antarctica as sled dogs, but were later outlawed by international agreement due to the possible risk of spreading. Domestic dogs inherited complex behaviors, such as bite inhibition, from their wolf ancestors, which would have been pack hunters. A new study has found that dogs are able to fit into human households and social situations because of their "trainability, playfulness and ability to Fit into Human Households and Social Situations". It added that the dogs' value to early human hunter-gatherers led to them quickly becoming ubiquitous across world cultures. The most widespread form of interspecies bonding occurs between humans and dogs, and the keeping of dogs as companions, particularly by elites, has a long history. In some cultures, however, dogs are also a source of meat. According to a study, three-quarters of the world's dog population lives in the developing world as feral, village, or community dogs. In the 1950s and 1960s, dogs were kept outside more often than they tend to be today. They were still primarily functional, acting as a guard, children's playmate, or walking companion. From the 1980s there have been changes in the pet dog’s role, such as the increased role of dogs in emotional support of their human guardians. There have been two significant trends occurring within the second half of the 20th century in pet dogs' changing status. The first has been "commodification", shaping it to conform to social expectations of personality and behavior, while the other has broadened the family's concept and the home to include dogs-as-dogs within everyday routines and practices. Dog training books, classes, and television programs proliferated as the process of commodifying the pet dog continued. Some dog trainers, such as on the television program Dog Whisperer, have promoted a dominance model of dog-human relationships. However, it has been disputed that "trying to achieve status" is characteristic of Dog-Human interactions. According to statistics published by the American Pet Products Manufacturers Association in the National Pet Owner Survey in 2009–2010, an estimated 77. According to a report by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 5 million people in the United States have pet dogs. The same source shows that nearly 40% of American households own at least one dog, of which 67% own just one Dog, 25% two dogs and nearly 9% more than two Dogs. Dogs have lived and worked with humans in many roles. In addition to dogs' role as companion animals, dogs have been bred for herding livestock (collies, sheepdogs), hunting (hounds, pointers) and rodent control (terriers). Other types of working dogs include search and rescue dogs, detection dogs trained to detect illicit drugs or chemical weapons, guard dogs and dogs that pull loads. Various kinds of service dogs and assistance dogs, including guide dogs. . . and hearing dogs. Some dogs owned by people with epilepsy have been shown to alert their handler when the handler shows signs of an impending seizure, sometimes well in advance of onset, allowing the guardian to seek safety, medication, or medical care. In conformation shows, a judge familiar with the specific dog breed evaluates individual purebred dogs for conformity with their established breed type as described in the breed standard. The judge evaluates the dog's externally observable qualities, such as appearance, movement and temperament, separately tested qualities (such as ability or health) are not part of the judging in conformation show. As many as 13-16 million dogs are killed and consumed in Asia every year, based on limited data, according to a study conducted by the University of California, Berkeley. The study also found that dog meat has become a social taboo in many parts of the world, including China. Dog meat is also consumed in some parts of Switzerland. Other cultures, such as Polynesia and pre-Columbian Mexico, also consume dog meat in their history. Dog fat is reportedly believed to be beneficial for the lungs in many parts in Poland and Central Asia. Proponents of eatingdog meat have argued that placing a distinction between livestock and dogs is Western hypocrisy. The most popular Korean dog dish is called 'bosintang', a spicy stew meant to balance the body's heat during the summer months. Followers of the custom claim this is done to ensure good health by balancing one' s gi, or body s vital energy. A 19th-century version explains that the dish was prepared by boiling dog meat with chili powder. According to a study, children in mid-to-late childhood are the largest percentage bitten by dogs, with a greater risk of injury to the head and neck. They are more likely to need medical treatment and have the highest death rate. Sharp claws with powerful muscles behind them can lacerate flesh in a scratch that can lead to serious infections. Toxocara canis (dog roundworm) eggs in dog feces can cause toxocariasis, according to a study. The eggs can also contain hookworms that cause cutaneous larva migrans in humans, the study said. UntreatedToxoCariasis can lead to retinal damage and decreased vision, it added. A new study has found that the genes involved in canine obsessive-compulsive disorders led to the detection of four genes in humans' related pathways. The study, led by researchers from the University of California, San Diego and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, was published in the journal Nature Communications. Earlier studies have shown that people who keep pet dogs or cats exhibit better mental and physical health than those who do not, making fewer visits to the doctor and being less likely to be on medication than non-guardians. However, recent research has failed to support earlier findings that pet ownership is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. A study has found that children who live with their pets are less likely to miss school due to sickness. The study, conducted by the University of California, San Diego, found a significant reduction in minor health problems during the first month following the acquisition of a pet. People with pet dogs took considerably more physical exercise than those with cats. Pet guardianship has also been associated with increased coronary artery disease survival. Human guardians are significantly less likely to die within one year of an acute myocardial infarction than those who did not own dogs. The health benefits of dogs can result from contact with dogs in general, not solely from having dogs as pets. A study found that wheelchair users experience more positive social interactions with strangers when accompanied by a dog than when they are not. In 2015, a study revealed that pet owners were significantly more likely to get to know people in their neighbourhood than non-pet owners. A study has found that animal-assisted therapy with a dog can increase social behaviors, such as smiling and laughing, among people with Alzheimer's disease. The study, conducted by researchers from the University of California, San Diego and the National Institute of Mental Health, showed that the therapy increased social behaviours, including laughing. In Norse mythology, a bloody, four-eyed dog called Garmr guards Helheim. [166] In Persian mythology's Annwn, the god of death, owns two watchdogs who have four eyes. They are said to watch over the gates of Naraka. The Dominican Order (Ecclesiastical Latin: Domini canis) means "dog of the Lord" or "hound of Lord". In Christian folklore, a church grim often takes the form of a black dog to guard Christian churches from sacrilege. Jewish law does not prohibit keeping dogs and other pets. The view on dogs in Islam is mixed, with some schools of thought viewing it as unclean. However, Khaled Abou El Fadl states that this view is based on "pre-Islamic Arab mythology" and "a tradition to be falsely attributed to the Prophet". Sunni Malaki and Hanafi jurists permit the trade of and keeping of dogs as pets. Bitch – any female member of the species (or subspecies) under 12 months old. Puppy or pup – a young member (younger than a pup) of a species or subspecies. Sire or Dam – the male parent or the female parent. Litter – all of puppies resulting from a single whelping. Whelping – the act of a bitch giving birth. Whelps – puppies still dependent upon their dam.
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