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6 Minutes, 11 Seconds

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Main Topic keyword:    

statecraft

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statecraft

Topics of your individual article:    

tools ✓ statecraft ✓ economic ✓ war ✓ respect ✓ Italy ✓ goal ✓ work ✓ goals ✓ techniques ✓ costs ✓ success ✓ sanctions ✓ foreign ✓ policy

Summary:    

In the first part of the 20th century, the League of Nations generated hopes that warfare could, to some extent, be prevented or replaced by economic sanctions. The first—and most important—step in evaluating the utility of any technique of statecraft, including economic sanctions, is identifying what goals were being pursued with respect to which targets. The critics of economic sanctions often dismiss them as merely symbolic, implying that they are empty gestures aimed at giving domestic audiences the false impression that something is being done.

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<p style="display: none;"> <script type="application/ld+json">{ "@context": "https://schema.org", "@type": "Article", "image": { "@type": "ImageObject", "url": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/images/logo.png", "width": 531, "height": 628 }, "name": "Article", "url": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/", "description": " ... https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/", "headline": ".", "dateCreated": "2022-01-23T03:09:12+01:00", "datePublished": "2022-01-23T03:09:12+01:00", "dateModified": "2022-01-23T03:09:12+01:00", "articleBody": "Foreign aid trade and policies governing the international flow of capital can be used as foreign policy tools and are considered the most common forms of economic statecraft. In principle policies Governing the International Movement of Labour could also be considered instances of Economic Statecraft if they are intended to promote Foreign Policy goals. Tools of economic statecraft have been used to pursue a wide variety of foreign policy goals. Source: https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/.", "mainEntityOfPage": { "@type": "WebPage", "@id": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/#webpage" }, "publisher": { "@type": "Organization", "@id": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/#organization", "url": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/", "name": "ArtikelSchreiber.com", "description": "Your free SEO text generator | ArtikelSchreiber.com", "logo": { "@type": "ImageObject", "@id": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/#logo", "url": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/images/logo.png", "width": 531, "height": 628 }, "image": { "@type": "ImageObject", "@id": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/#logo", "url": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/images/logo.png", "width": 531, "height": 628 }, "sameAs": [ "https://www.unaique.net/" ] }, "keywords": "tools, statecraft, economic, war, respect, Italy, goal, work, goals, techniques, costs, success, sanctions, foreign, policy", "author": { "@type": "Person", "name": "ArtikelSchreiber.com", "url": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/", "sameAs": [ "https://www.unaique.net/" ] }, "@id": "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/#links", "commentCount": "0", "sameAs": [ "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/en/", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/es/", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/fr", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/it", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/ru/", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/zh", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/jp/", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/ar", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/hi/", "https://www.artikelschreiber.com/pt/" ], "speakable": { "@type": "SpeakableSpecification", "xpath": [ "/html/head/title", "/html/head/meta[@name='description']/@content" ] } } </script> </p><br /><br /> Foreign aid, trade, and policies governing the international flow of capital can be used as foreign policy tools and are considered the most common forms of economic statecraft. In principle, policies Governing the International Movement of Labour could also be considered instances of Economic Statecraft if they are intended to promote Foreign Policy goals. Tools of economic statecraft have been used to pursue a wide variety of foreign policy goals. Those include preparing for war, preventing war. . . promoting democracy, punishing human rights violators, promoting communism, opposing communism. . . promoting economic development. . . preventing regime change. . . and many others. Economic statecraft takes many different forms, including both positive and negative sanctions. Negative sanctions are actual or threatened punishments, whereas positive Sanctions are actually or promised rewards. Examples of positive sanctions include the following: refusing to export ( embargoes) or refuse to import ( boycotts), covert refusals to trade (blacklists), purchases intended to keep goods out of the hands of target countries (preclusive buying). Economic techniques of statecraft are distinguished from other foreign policy tools such as diplomacy, which concerns negotiation; and propaganda, that concerns manipulating verbal or visual symbols. Most foreign policies consist of some combination of those techniques. The League of Nations imposed sanctions on Italy in response to its invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, partly to punish Italy but also to warn Hitler of its members' determination to resist aggression. The failure of the sanctions with respect to both goals generated a widespread belief that such measures do not work. The first step in evaluating the utility of any technique of statecraft, including economic sanctions, is identifying what goals were being pursued with respect to which targets. This is followed by identifying the cost of pursuing the goal and then comparing it with alternative techniques. In the case of the League of Nations sanctions against Italy, for example, impressing Hitler was probably more important than stopping Italian aggression. In addition, there was a desire not to impose such hardship on Italy that it might undermine the fascist regime and bring the communists to power. Most attempts to assess the success of economic sanctions, however, consider only one goal with respect to one target. An additional complication is that success is almost always a matter of degree. In statecraft, as in everyday life, complete success in goal attainment occurs rarely, if ever. The potential number of degrees of success (or failure) is, of course, infinite. Thus, any attempt to measure the success of a project must involve simplification. Whether a 3-point scale or a 16-point Scale is more appropriate is a matter for reasonable dispute, but a conceptionous conception, which fails to allow for any degree of Success, is difficult to justify. Measuring the costs of economic sanctions is usually easier than measuring the non-economic costs. Political costs are likely to be both important and difficult to measure. That does not mean that reasonable estimates are impossible. Perhaps the most difficult step in assessing the utility of statecraft is setting such assessments in the context of the logic of choice. In such cases, economic sanctions often provide a policy alternative with modest expectations of goal attainment at relatively low cost, while military force involves a higher probability ofgoal attainment accompanied by much higher costs. If the goal is to choose the policyalternative with the most utility, the rational choice may be one that accomplishes fewer goals at much lower cost. Advocates of war argued that the costs of maintaining the sanctions could go on for years, whereas the Costs of War would be limited in both time and magnitude. The critics of economic sanctions often dismiss them as "merely symbolic", implying that they are empty gestures aimed at giving domestic audiences the false impression that "something is being done". The symbolic use of economic sanctions can be an important way to influence the actions and attitudes of other countries. Game theoretical models have been especially useful in the study of that aspect of statecraft. Economic sanctions may serve as costly signals that increase the credibility of foreign policy stances. As with other foreign policy tools, economic statecraft can be used to make either threats or promises and to either punish or reward.
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